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1.
  • Adami, Hans-Olov, et al. (författare)
  • Management of Early Prostate Cancer REPLY
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 370:22, s. 2151-2151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Adams, D., et al. (författare)
  • Patisiran, an RNAi Therapeutic, for Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 379:1, s. 11-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patisiran, an investigational RNA interference therapeutic agent, specifically inhibits hepatic synthesis of transthyretin.METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive intravenous patisiran (0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo once every 3 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score+7 (mNIS+7; range, 0 to 304, with higher scores indicating more impairment) at 18 months. Other assessments included the Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (Norfolk QOL-DN) questionnaire (range, -4 to 136, with higher scores indicating worse quality of life), 10-m walk test (with gait speed measured in meters per second), and modified body-mass index (modified BMI, defined as [weight in kilograms divided by square of height in meters] x albumin level in grams per liter; lower values indicated worse nutritional status).RESULTS: A total of 225 patients underwent randomization (148 to the patisiran group and 77 to the placebo group). The mean (+/- SD) mNIS+7 at baseline was 80.9 +/- 41.5 in the patisiran group and 74.6 +/- 37.0 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (+/- SE) change from baseline was -6.0 +/- 1.7 versus 28.0 +/- 2.6 (difference, -34.0 points; P<0.001) at 18 months. The mean (+/- SD) baseline Norfolk QOL-DN score was 59.6 +/- 28.2 in the patisiran group and 55.5 +/- 24.3 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (+/- SE) change from baseline was -6.7 +/- 1.8 versus 14.4 +/- 2.7 (difference, -21.1 points; P<0.001) at 18 months. Patisiran also showed an effect on gait speed and modified BMI. At 18 months, the least-squares mean change from baseline in gait speed was 0.08 +/- 0.02 m per second with patisiran versus -0.24 +/- 0.04 m per second with placebo (difference, 0.31 m per second; P<0.001), and the least-squares mean change from baseline in the modified BMI was -3.7 +/- 9.6 versus -119.4 +/- 14.5 (difference, 115.7; P<0.001). Approximately 20% of the patients who received patisiran and 10% of those who received placebo had mild or moderate infusion-related reactions; the overall incidence and types of adverse events were similar in the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, patisiran improved multiple clinical manifestations of hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.
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3.
  • Afshin, Ashkan, et al. (författare)
  • Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 377:1, s. 13-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. 
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4.
  • Ahrenstedt, O, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced local production of complement components in the small intestines of patients with Crohn's disease.
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 322:19, s. 1345-1349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is evidence that complement components may be formed locally in inflammatory lesions containing monocytes and macrophages. To investigate the role of complement in Crohn's disease we measured jejunal-fluid concentrations of the complement components C4, C3, and factor B by perfusion of a closed segment of the jejunum in 22 patients with Crohn's disease thought to be limited to the terminal ileum. The mean (+/- SEM) jejunal-fluid C4 concentration was 2.0 +/- 0.3 mg per liter, significantly higher than the mean level in 35 healthy controls (0.7 +/- 0.1 mg per liter; P less than 0.001). The mean C3 concentration was 1.0 +/- 0.1 mg per liter in the patients and 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg per liter in the controls (P less than 0.05). The factor B levels were similar in the two groups. Calculated rates of intestinal secretion of these components showed differences of the same magnitude. Leakage of protein from plasma was not increased. The jejunal-fluid:serum ratios of these complement proteins indicated that their appearance in the lumen of the jejunum was due to at least in part to local mucosal synthesis. The increased jejunal secretion of C4, but not C3 or factor B, paralleled the clinical activity of Crohn's disease. Values were normal in first-degree relatives of the patients (n = 13), patients with celiac disease (n = 8), and patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 4). We conclude that increased secretion of complement by clinically unaffected jejunal tissue in patients with Crohn's disease reflects the systemic nature of this disorder and may be due to the stimulated synthesis of complement by activated intestinal monocytes and macrophages.
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5.
  • Ahrenstedt, Örjan, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced local production of the complement components in the small intestine in Crohn's disease
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 322, s. 1345-1349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is evidence that complement components may be formed locally in inflammatory lesions containing monocytes and macrophages. To investigate the role of complement in Crohn's disease we measured jejunal-fluid concentrations of the complement components C4, C3, and factor B by perfusion of a closed segment of the jejunum in 22 patients with Crohn's disease thought to be limited to the terminal ileum.The mean (±SEM) jejunal-fluid C4 concentration was 2.0±0.3 mg per liter, significantly higher than the mean level in 35 healthy controls (0.7±0.1 mg per liter; P<0.001). The mean C3 concentration was 1.0±0.1 mg per liter in the patients and 0.7±0.1 mg per liter in the controls (P<0.05). The factor B levels were similar in the two groups. Calculated rates of intestinal secretion of these components showed differences of the same magnitude. Leakage of protein from plasma was not increased. The jejunal-fluid serum ratios of these complement proteins indicated that their appearance in the lumen of the jejunum was due at least in part to local mucosal synthesis. The increased jejunal secretion of C4, but not C3 or factor B, paralleled the clinical activity of Crohn's disease. Values were normal in first-degree relatives of the patients (n = 13), patients with celiac disease (n = 8), and patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 4).We conclude that increased secretion of complement by clinically unaffected jejunal tissue in patients with Crohn's disease reflects the systemic nature of this disorder and may be due to the stimulated synthesis of complement by activated intestinal monocytes and macrophages. 
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6.
  • Alexander, John H., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban after Acute Coronary Syndrome REPLY
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 365:19, s. 1844-1845
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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7.
  • Alexander, John H., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban with Antiplatelet Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 365:8, s. 699-708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events.Results: The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P = 0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P = 0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo.Conclusions: The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events.
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8.
  • Alimohammadi, Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 and NALP5, a parathyroid autoantigen
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 358:10, s. 1018-1028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a multiorgan autoimmune disorder caused by mutations in AIRE, the autoimmune regulator gene. Though recent studies concerning AIRE deficiency have begun to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmunity in patients with APS-1, the autoantigen responsible for hypoparathyroidism, a hallmark of APS-1 and its most common autoimmune endocrinopathy, has not yet been identified. METHODS: We performed immunoscreening of a human parathyroid complementary DNA library, using serum samples from patients with APS-1 and hypoparathyroidism, to identify patients with reactivity to the NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 (NALP5). Subsequently, serum samples from 87 patients with APS-1 and 293 controls, including patients with other autoimmune disorders, were used to determine the frequency and specificity of autoantibodies against NALP5. In addition, the expression of NALP5 was investigated in various tissues. RESULTS: NALP5-specific autoantibodies were detected in 49% of the patients with APS-1 and hypoparathyroidism but were absent in all patients with APS-1 but without hypoparathyroidism, in all patients with other autoimmune endocrine disorders, and in all healthy controls. NALP5 was predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm of parathyroid chief cells. CONCLUSIONS: NALP5 appears to be a tissue-specific autoantigen involved in hypoparathyroidism in patients with APS-1. Autoantibodies against NALP5 appear to be highly specific and may be diagnostic for this prominent component of APS-1.
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9.
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10.
  • Andersson, RE, et al. (författare)
  • Appendectomy and protection against ulcerative colitis
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 344:11, s. 808-814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A history of appendectomy is rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. This suggests a protective effect of appendectomy or that appendicitis and ulcerative colitis are alternative inflammatory responses. We sought to characterize this inverse relation further. Methods:We studied a cohort of 212,963 patients who underwent appendectomy before the age of 50 years between 1964 and 1993 and a cohort of matched controls who were identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register and the nationwide census. The cohort was followed until 1995 for any subsequent diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Results: Patients who underwent appendectomy for appendicitis and mesenteric lymphadenitis had a low risk of ulcerative colitis (for patients with perforated appendicitis, the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.58 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.87], for those with nonperforated appendicitis it was 0.76 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.90], and for those with mesenteric lymphadenitis it was 0.57 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.89]). In contrast, patients who underwent appendectomy for nonspecific abdominal pain had the same risk of ulcerative colitis as the controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.06, 95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.52). For the patients who had appendicitis, an inverse relation with the risk of ulcerative colitis was found only for those who underwent surgery before the age of 20 years (P<0.001). Conclusions: Appendectomy for an inflammatory condition (appendicitis or lymphadenitis) but not for nonspecific abdominal pain is associated with a low risk of subsequent ulcerative colitis. This inverse relation is limited to patients who undergo surgery before the age of 20 years.
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