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Sökning: L773:0036 8075 OR L773:1095 9203 > (2020-2023)

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  • Michel, M., et al. (författare)
  • Small-molecule activation of OGG1 increases oxidative DNA damage repair by gaining a new function
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - Stockholm : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 376:6600, s. 1471-1476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oxidative DNA damage is recognized by 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), which excises 8-oxoG, leaving a substrate for apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) and initiating repair. Here, we describe a small molecule (TH10785) that interacts with the phenylalanine-319 and glycine-42 amino acids of OGG1, increases the enzyme activity 10-fold, and generates a previously undescribed b,d-lyase enzymatic function. TH10785 controls the catalytic activity mediated by a nitrogen base within its molecular structure. In cells, TH10785 increases OGG1 recruitment to and repair of oxidative DNA damage. This alters the repair process, which no longer requires APE1 but instead is dependent on polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNKP1) activity. The increased repair of oxidative DNA lesions with a small molecule may have therapeutic applications in various diseases and aging. © 2022 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for neutrino emission from the nearby active galaxy NGC 1068
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 378:6619, s. 538-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A supermassive black hole, obscured by cosmic dust, powers the nearby active galaxy NGC 1068. Neutrinos, which rarely interact with matter, could provide information on the galaxy's active core. We searched for neutrino emission from astrophysical objects using data recorded with the IceCube neutrino detector between 2011 and 2020. The positions of 110 known gamma-ray sources were individually searched for neutrino detections above atmospheric and cosmic backgrounds. We found that NGC 1068 has an excess of 79(-20)(+22) neutrinos at tera-electron volt energies, with a global significance of 4.2 sigma, which we interpret as associated with the active galaxy. The flux of high-energy neutrinos that we measured from NGC 1068 is more than an order of magnitude higher than the upper limit on emissions of tera-electron volt gamma rays from this source.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Revealing x-ray and gamma ray temporal and spectral similarities in the GRB 190829A afterglow
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association of Advancement in Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 372:6546, s. 1081-1085
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are bright flashes of gamma rays from extragalactic sources followed by fading afterglow emission, are associated with stellar core collapse events. We report the detection of very- high-energy (VHE) gamma rays from the afterglow of GRB 190829A, between 4 and 56 hours after the trigger, using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). The low luminosity and redshift of GRB 190829A reduce both internal and external absorption, allowing determination of its intrinsic energy spectrum. Between energies of 0.18 and 3.3 tera-electron volts, this spectrum is described by a power law with photon index of 2.07 +/- 0.09, similar to the x-ray spectrum. The x-ray and VHE gamma- ray light curves also show similar decay profiles. These similar characteristics in the x-ray and gamma-ray bands challenge GRB afterglow emission scenarios.
  • Aharonian, F., et al. (författare)
  • Time-resolved hadronic particle acceleration in the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 376:6588, s. 77-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recurrent novae are repeating thermonuclear explosions in the outer layers of white dwarfs, due to the accretion of fresh material from a binary companion. The shock generated when ejected material slams into the companion star's wind can accelerate particles. We report very-high-energy [VHE: greater than or similar to 100 giga-electron volts] gamma rays from the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi, up to 1 month after its 2021 outburst, observed using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). The temporal profile of VHE emission is similar to that of lower-energy giga-electron volt emission, indicating a common origin, with a 2-day delay in peak flux. These observations constrain models of time-dependent particle energization, favoring a hadronic emission scenario over the leptonic alternative. Shocks in dense winds provide favorable environments for efficient acceleration of cosmic rays to very high energies.
  • Ajello, M., et al. (författare)
  • A gamma-ray pulsar timing array constrains the nanohertz gravitational wave background
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 376:6592, s. 521-523
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After large galaxies merge, their central supermassive black holes are expected to form binary systems. Their orbital motion should generate a gravitational wave background (GWB) at nanohertz frequencies. Searches for this background use pulsar timing arrays, which perform long-term monitoring of millisecond pulsars at radio wavelengths. We used 12.5 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data to form a gamma-ray pulsar timing array. Results from 35 bright gamma-ray pulsars place a 95% credible limit on the GWB characteristic strain of 1.0 x 10(-14) at a frequency of 1 year(-1). The sensitivity is expected to scale with t(obs), the observing time span, as t(obs)(-13/6). This direct measurement provides an independent probe of the GWB while offering a check on radio noise models.
  • Akbari, Parsa, et al. (författare)
  • Sequencing of 640,000 exomes identifies GPR75 variants associated with protection from obesity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 373:6550
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale human exome sequencing can identify rare protein-coding variants with a large impact on complex traits such as body adiposity. We sequenced the exomes of 645,626 individuals from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Mexico and estimated associations of rare coding variants with body mass index (BMI). We identified 16 genes with an exome-wide significant association with BMI, including those encoding five brain-expressed G protein-coupled receptors (CALCR, MC4R, GIPR, GPR151, and GPR75). Protein-truncating variants in GPR75 were observed in ∼4/10,000 sequenced individuals and were associated with 1.8 kilograms per square meter lower BMI and 54% lower odds of obesity in the heterozygous state. Knock out of Gpr75 in mice resulted in resistance to weight gain and improved glycemic control in a high-fat diet model. Inhibition of GPR75 may provide a therapeutic strategy for obesity.
  • Amann, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The state of zinc in methanol synthesis over a Zn/ZnO/Cu(211) model catalyst
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 376:6593, s. 603-608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The active chemical state of zinc (Zn) in a zinc-copper (Zn-Cu) catalyst during carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide (CO2/CO) hydrogenation has been debated to be Zn oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, metallic Zn, or a Zn-Cu surface alloy. We used x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 180 to 500 millibar to probe the nature of Zn and reaction intermediates during CO2/CO hydrogenation over Zn/ZnO/Cu(211), where the temperature is sufficiently high for the reaction to rapidly turn over, thus creating an almost adsorbate-free surface. Tuning of the grazing incidence angle makes it possible to achieve either surface or bulk sensitivity. Hydrogenation of CO2 gives preference to ZnO in the form of clusters or nanoparticles, whereas in pure CO a surface Zn-Cu alloy becomes more prominent. The results reveal a specific role of CO in the formation of the Zn-Cu surface alloy as an active phase that facilitates efficient CO2 methanol synthesis.  
  • Anderegg, William R L, et al. (författare)
  • A climate risk analysis of Earth's forests in the 21st century
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 377:6610, s. 1099-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Earth's forests harbor extensive biodiversity and are currently a major carbon sink. Forest conservation and restoration can help mitigate climate change; however, climate change could fundamentally imperil forests in many regions and undermine their ability to provide such mitigation. The extent of climate risks facing forests has not been synthesized globally nor have different approaches to quantifying forest climate risks been systematically compared. We combine outputs from multiple mechanistic and empirical approaches to modeling carbon, biodiversity, and disturbance risks to conduct a synthetic climate risk analysis for Earth's forests in the 21st century. Despite large uncertainty in most regions we find that some forests are consistently at higher risk, including southern boreal forests and those in western North America and parts of the Amazon.
  • Andersson, ER (författare)
  • In the zone for liver proliferation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 371:6532, s. 887-888
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Distinct liver compartments contribute to hepatocyte homeostasis versus regeneration
  • Antonelli, Alexandre, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Madagascar's extraordinary biodiversity : Evolution, distribution, and use
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 378:6623, s. 962-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Madagascar's biota is hyperdiverse and includes exceptional levels of endemicity. We review the current state of knowledge on Madagascar's past and current terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity by compiling and presenting comprehensive data on species diversity, endemism, and rates of species description and human uses, in addition to presenting an updated and simplified map of vegetation types. We report a substantial increase of records and species new to science in recent years; however, the diversity and evolution of many groups remain practically unknown (e.g., fungi and most invertebrates). Digitization efforts are increasing the resolution of species richness patterns and we highlight the crucial role of field- and collections-based research for advancing biodiversity knowledge and identifying gaps in our understanding, particularly as species richness corresponds closely to collection effort. Phylogenetic diversity patterns mirror that of species richness and endemism in most of the analyzed groups. We highlight humid forests as centers of diversity and endemism because of their role as refugia and centers of recent and rapid radiations. However, the distinct endemism of other areas, such as the grassland-woodland mosaic of the Central Highlands and the spiny forest of the southwest, is also biologically important despite lower species richness. The documented uses of Malagasy biodiversity are manifold, with much potential for the uncovering of new useful traits for food, medicine, and climate mitigation. The data presented here showcase Madagascar as a unique " living laboratory" for our understanding of evolution and the complex interactions between people and nature. The gathering and analysis of biodiversity data must continue and accelerate if we are to fully understand and safeguard this unique subset of Earth's biodiversity.
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