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  • Staaf, Gert, et al. (författare)
  • Pure motor stroke from presumed lacunar infarct - Long-term prognosis for survival and risk of recurrent stroke
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 1524-4628. ; 32:11, s. 2592-2596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-A low risk of recurrent stroke and death after lacunar infarction has previously been reported, but follow-up has been limited to less than or equal to5 years. Methods-One hundred eighty patients with pure motor stroke, collected between 1983 and 1986 from a hospital-based stroke registry, were followed up until at least 10 years after the index stroke. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Survival status was determined from the official population registry and compared with survival rates of the Swedish population, matched for age and sex. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify independent prognostic predictors. Results-During follow-up 106 (60%) of the 178 patients died, most commonly as a result of coronary heart disease. During the first 5 years after the stroke, survival rates were similar to those of the general population. Beyond this time the risk of death was increased among patients with pure motor stroke, with an excess of 10 to 15 percent units compared with the general population. Independent determinants for death were age (P <0.01), male sex (P <0.01), and nonuse of acetylsalicylic acid (P=0.02). Recurrent stroke occurred in 42 (23.5%) of the patients, corresponding to an annual risk of 2.4%. Hypertension (P=0.025) and diabetes (P=0.024) were independent risk factors for recurrent stroke. Conclusions-For the first few years after lacunar infarct, the risk of death was similar to that of the general population, but later a clear excess of death was observed. The long-term prognosis in lacunar infarction appears less favorable than previously reported.
  • Aarnio, K., et al. (författare)
  • Cancer in Young Adults With Ischemic Stroke
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 46:6, s. 1601-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. Methods-1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. Results-One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age >40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Conclusions-Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients.
  • Ahmed, Niaz, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of intravenous nimodipine on blood pressure and outcome after acute stroke
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 31:6, s. 1250-1255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-The Intravenous Nimodipine West European Stroke Trial (INWEST) found a correlation between nimodipine-induced reduction in blood pressure (BP) and an unfavorable outcome in acute stroke. We sought to confirm this correlation with and without adjustment for prognostic variables and to investigate outcome in subgroups with increasing levels of BP reduction. Methods-Patients with a clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke (within 24 hours) were consecutively allocated to receive placebo (n=100), 1 mg/h (low-dose) nimodipine (n=101), or 2 mg/h (high-dose) nimodipine (n=94). The correlation between average BP change during the first 2 days and the outcome at day 21 was analysed. Results-Two hundred sixty-five patients were included in this analysis (n=92, 93, and 80 for placebo, low dose, and high dose. respectively). Nimodipine treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) from baseline compared with placebo during the first few days. In multivariate analysis, a significant correlation between DBP reduction and worsening of the neurological score was round for the high-close group (beta=0.49, P=0.048). Patients with a DBP reduction of greater than or equal to 20% in the high-dose group had a significantly increased adjusted OR for the compound outcome variable death or dependency (Barthel Index <60) (n/N=25/26, OR 10.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 101.74) and death alone (n/N=9/26, OR 4.3361 95% CI 1.131 16.619) compared with all placebo patients (n/N=62/92 and 14/92. respectively). There was no correlation between SEP change and outcome. Conclusions-DBP, but not SEP, reduction was associated with neurological worsening after the intravenous administration of high-dose nimodipine after acute stroke. For low-dose nimodipine, the results were not conclusive. These results do not confirm or exclude a neuroprotective property of nimodipine.
  • Aho, Leena, et al. (författare)
  • Beta-amyloid aggregation in human brains with cerebrovascular lesions.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 37:12, s. 2940-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study assessed beta-amyloid (Abeta) protein aggregates in postmortem human brains in subjects who had experienced stroke to examine the proposed association between ischemic stress and the accumulation of Abeta reported in rodents. METHODS: A sample of 484 postmortem brains from nondemented subjects, lacking isocortical neurodegenerative pathology with verified cerebrovascular lesions, and 57 age-matched controls were assessed with respect to Abeta, Abeta40, and Abeta42 aggregates in the cortex and thalamus by immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: The load of Abeta aggregates did not display a significant association with cerebrovascular lesions. The load of Abeta, Abeta40, and Abeta42 aggregates increased with age, and there was a tendency toward higher odds ratios for Abeta aggregates, though not statistically significant, in subjects with acute cerebrovascular lesions. In the oldest subjects with cerebrovascular lesions and with both thalamic and cortical Abeta aggregates, the load of thalamic Abeta42 was significantly higher than the load of Abeta40. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cerebrovascular disease does not influence the load of Abeta, whereas a shift of aggregation from the Abeta40 to the Abeta42 residue is noted in the thalamus but only in aged subjects. It is impossible, however, to state whether this result is attributable to increased Abeta production, its insufficient elimination, or other susceptibility factors.
  • Altavilla, R., et al. (författare)
  • Anticoagulation After Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: To Bridge or Not With Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 50:8, s. 2093-2100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose- Bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin reportedly leads to a worse outcome for acute cardioembolic stroke patients because of a higher incidence of intracerebral bleeding. However, this practice is common in clinical settings. This observational study aimed to compare (1) the clinical profiles of patients receiving and not receiving bridging therapy, (2) overall group outcomes, and (3) outcomes according to the type of anticoagulant prescribed. Methods- We analyzed data of patients from the prospective RAF and RAF-NOACs studies. The primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracerebral bleeding observed at 90 days after the acute stroke. Results- Of 1810 patients who initiated oral anticoagulant therapy, 371 (20%) underwent bridging therapy with full-dose low-molecular-weight heparin. Older age and the presence of leukoaraiosis were inversely correlated with the use of bridging therapy. Forty-two bridged patients (11.3%) reached the combined outcome versus 72 (5.0%) of the nonbridged patients (P=0.0001). At multivariable analysis, bridging therapy was associated with the composite end point (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P<0.0001), as well as ischemic (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9; P=0.005) and hemorrhagic (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; P=0.01) end points separately. Conclusions- Our findings suggest that patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin have a higher risk of early ischemic recurrence and hemorrhagic transformation compared with nonbridged patients.
  • Amarenco, Pierre, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Added to Aspirin in Acute Nonsevere Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack of Atherosclerotic Origin
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 51:12, s. 3504-3513
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose:Among patients with a transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic strokes, those with ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis of cervicocranial vasculature have the highest risk of recurrent vascular events.Methods:In the double-blind THALES (The Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Ticagrelor and ASA for Prevention of Stroke and Death) trial, we randomized patients with a noncardioembolic, nonsevere ischemic stroke, or high-risk transient ischemic attack to ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 90 mg twice daily for days 2–30) or placebo added to aspirin (300–325 mg on day 1 followed by 75–100 mg daily for days 2–30) within 24 hours of symptom onset. The present paper reports a prespecified analysis in patients with and without ipsilateral, potentially causal atherosclerotic stenosis ≥30% of cervicocranial vasculature. The primary end point was time to the occurrence of stroke or death within 30 days.Results:Of 11 016 randomized patients, 2351 (21.3%) patients had an ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis. After 30 days, a primary end point occurred in 92/1136 (8.1%) patients with ipsilateral stenosis randomized to ticagrelor and in 132/1215 (10.9%) randomized to placebo (hazard ratio 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56–0.96], P=0.023) resulting in a number needed to treat of 34 (95% CI, 19–171). In patients without ipsilateral stenosis, the corresponding event rate was 211/4387 (4.8%) and 230/4278 (5.4%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.74–1.08]; P=0.23, Pinteraction=0.245). Severe bleeding occurred in 4 (0.4%) and 3 (0.2%) patients with ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis on ticagrelor and on placebo, respectively (P=NS), and in 24 (0.5%) and 4 (0.1%), respectively, in 8665 patients without ipsilateral stenosis (hazard ratio=5.87 [95% CI, 2.04–16.9], P=0.001).Conclusions:In this exploratory analysis comparing ticagrelor added to aspirin to aspirin alone, we found no treatment by ipsilateral atherosclerosis stenosis subgroup interaction but did identify a higher absolute risk and a greater absolute risk reduction of stroke or death at 30 days in patients with ipsilateral atherosclerosis stenosis than in those without. In this easily identified population, ticagrelor added to aspirin provided a clinically meaningful benefit with a number needed to treat of 34 (95% CI, 19–171).
  • Appelros, Peter (författare)
  • Heart failure and stroke
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 37:7, s. 1637-1637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in stroke epidemiology : a systematic review
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 40:4, s. 1082-1090
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies, mainly based on Western European surveys, have shown that stroke is more common in men than in women. In recent years, sex-specific data on stroke incidence, prevalence, subtypes, severity and case-fatality have become available from other parts of the world. The purpose of this article is to give a worldwide review on sex differences in stroke epidemiology. METHODS: We searched PubMed, tables-of-contents, review articles, and reference lists for community-based studies including information on sex differences. In some areas, such as secular trends, ischemic subtypes and stroke severity, noncommunity-based studies were also reviewed. Male/female ratios were calculated. RESULTS: We found 98 articles that contained relevant sex-specific information, including 59 incidence studies from 19 countries and 5 continents. The mean age at first-ever stroke was 68.6 years among men, and 72.9 years among women. Male stroke incidence rate was 33% higher and stroke prevalence was 41% higher than the female, with large variations between age bands and between populations. The incidence rates of brain infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage were higher among men, whereas the rate of subarachnoidal hemorrhage was higher among women, although this difference was not statistically significant. Stroke tended to be more severe in women, with a 1-month case fatality of 24.7% compared with 19.7% for men. CONCLUSIONS: Worldwide, stroke is more common among men, but women are more severely ill. The mismatch between the sexes is larger than previously described.
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