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  • Abom, A.E., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of gate metal film growth parameters on the properties of gas sensitive field-effect devices
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 409:2, s. 233-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thin films of Pt have been grown as gate metals on the oxide surface of gas sensitive field-effect devices. Both electron beam evaporation and dc magnetron sputtering has been used. The energy of the impinging Pt atoms, the substrate temperature and the thickness of the Pt film were used as parameters in this study. The influence of the growth parameters on the gas response has been investigated and compared with the properties of the films, studied by transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The conditions during growth of the Pt film are found to have a large impact on the properties of the device. As expected, crystallinity, morphology and the metal/substrate interfacial structure are also affected by processing parameters. Three different growth processes stand out as the most promising from gas sensor considerations, namely room temperature evaporation, sputtering at high pressures and sputtering at high temperatures. The correlation between gas responses and properties of the gas sensitive layer is discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Almer, J, et al. (författare)
  • Microstructure, stress and mechanical properties of arc-evaporated Cr-C-N coatings
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 385:1-2, s. 190-197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationships between coating microstructure and properties in the Cr-C-N system have been investigated as a function of composition and post-deposition annealing. Coatings of varying compositions were grown using arc-evaporation, by varying the reactive gas flow ratio fR = f(C2H4)/f(N2) from 0 to 0.2, and were found to consist primarily of the cubic d-Cr(C,N) phase. Changes in both the unstressed lattice parameter, ao, and X-ray diffraction background intensity indicate that both the carbon concentration within the d-phase and amorphous/crystalline content increases with fR. Increasing fR also decreases the magnitude of the compressive biaxial residual stress, from approximately 6 to 1 GPa, while increasing both the inhomogeneous stress and thermal stability. The elastic modulus and hardness of as-deposited coatings were determined from nanoindentation to be 320 and 23 GPa, respectively, for moderate carbon concentrations (fR=0.05). Concurrent variations in microstructure and hardness with post-deposition annealing indicate that the as-deposited hardness is significantly enhanced by the microstructure, primarily by lattice defects and related stresses (microstresses) rather than average stresses (macrostresses).
  • Almqvist, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Roughness determination of plasma-modified surface layers with atomic force microscopy
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 270:1-2, s. 426-430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Graphite surfaces exposed to the deuterium plasma in the TEXTOR tokamak were characterized in detail by means of scanning probe microscopy, ion beam analysis and colorimetry methods. The aim is to study the composition and structure of thin layer deposits formed on surfaces subjected to the tokamak plasma. The surface roughness was measured and parametrized in terms of fractal dimension and scaling constant. Several different methods for the fractal analysis of plasma-exposed surfaces have been critically evaluated. The main emphasis of this paper is on the correlation between surface roughness (fractal parameters), the amount of deposited atoms and the layer thickness.
  • Andersson, Kent, et al. (författare)
  • High stability titanium nitride based solar control films
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - : Elsevier. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 214:2, s. 213-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triple-layer structures of TiO2TiN/TiO2 and quadruple layer structures of TiO2Al/TiN/TiO2 have been sputtered on glass substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300°C. The reflectance and transmittance were measured in the visible and the near-IR wavelength regions. The thin layer of aluminium, in the quadruple layer, oxidizes and forms a dense diffusion barrier. The multilayers exhibit improved optical selectivity which also improves with substrate temperature up to 300°C.
  • Arias, A.C., et al. (författare)
  • Use of tin oxide thin films as a transparent electrode in PPV based light-emitting diodes
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 371:1, s. 201-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tin oxide (TO) thin films, nominally undoped, have been used as electrodes in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) based organic electroluminescent devices. The evolution of the crystallinity and the electrical resistance of TO films submitted to the PPV thermal conversion conditions, have been investigated. It has been found that the electrical resistance is decreased whereas the crystallinity of the film is increased. It is shown in this work, that the photoluminescence of PPV converted on top of TO substrates is not as quenched as it is when converted on top of indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The quantum efficiency of light-emitting diode is 0.07% at 17 V forward bias. It is also shown that the work function of TO films is very stable to different cleaning procedures, in contrast with previous results obtained for ITO films.
  • Arwin, Hans (författare)
  • Ellipsometry on thin organic layers of biological interest : Characterization and applications
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 377-378, s. 48-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The thickness resolution and in situ advantage of ellipsometry make this optical technique particularly suitable for studies of thin organic layers of biological interest. Early ellipsometric studies in this area mainly provided thickness quantification, often expressed in terms of surface mass. However, today it is possible to perform monolayer spectroscopy, e.g. of a protein layer at a solid/liquid interface, and also to resolve details in the kinetics of layer formation. Furthermore, complicated microstructures, like porous silicon layers, can be modeled and protein adsorption can be monitored in such layers providing information about pore filling and penetration depths of protein molecules of different size and type. Quantification of adsorption and microstructural parameters of thin organic layers on planar surfaces and in porous layers is of high interest, especially in areas like biomaterials and surface-based biointeraction. Furthermore, by combining ellipsometric readout and biospecificity, possibilities to develop biosensor concepts are emerging. In this report we review the use of ellipsometry in various forms for studies of organic layers with special emphasis on biologically-related issues including in situ monitoring of protein adsorption on planar surfaces and in porous layers, protein monolayer spectroscopy and ellipsometric imaging for determination of thickness distributions. Included is also a discussion about recent developments of biosensor systems and possibilities for in situ monitoring of engineering of multilayer systems based on macromolecules.
  • Bantikassegn, W., et al. (författare)
  • Absence of Schottky barrier formation in junctions of Al and polypyrrole-polyelectrolyte polymer complexes
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 224:2, s. 232-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thin films of conducting polypyrrole doped with large polymeric anions of polystyrene-sulphonate are electrochemically prepared to study the metal/polymer junctions. Aluminium and gold contacts are vacuum deposited to form metal/polymer/gold sandwich structures for current-voltage characterization. Photoelectron spectroscopy, using UV and X-ray photons, is carried out to investigate the possible causes of current limitation in the Al/PPy(PSS) junction.
  • Baudin, M., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular dynamics simulations of an Al2O3(0001 +/-, 0-10(II))/CeO2 (011 +/-,01-1(II)) interface system
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 401:02-jan, s. 159-164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Constant stress, constant temperature (10 K, 300 K) molecular dynamics simulations were carried out with shell-model potentials for an infinite composite ceria-alumina slab with two free surfaces [alpha -Al2O3 (0001) and CeO2(011) and their opposite counterparts]. The interface introduces considerable structural and dynamical changes, both at the slab surfaces and in the center of the slab. Structurally, both oxide surfaces become effectively oxygen-terminated and the surface structures become disordered close to the interface. Dynamically, in the region near the 'alumina surface/ceria surface/alumina-ceria interface' 3-phase junction the ionic motion is considerably enhanced. Thus, in the interface region, the ionic mean-square displacements increase 2-3 times compared to the pure slabs. Moreover, the ions at the interface participate in a new kind of motion, not present in the pure oxide slabs: large occasional, but frequently reoccurring, back-and-forth ionic motions take place with square-amplitudes as large as similar to0.70 Angstrom (2).
  • Cardona, M., et al. (författare)
  • Ellipsometric investigations of piezo-optical effects
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 313-314, s. 10-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An introduction to the stress-induced birefringence of solids, with emphasis on cubic and amorphous materials, is given. Most available experimental data have been obtained in the frequency region below the electronic absorption edge: the corresponding coefficients of the stress-optical tensor are then real. Above the edge (and also in the IR region of the Reststrahlen) they become complex. Ellipsometry is an excellent tool for the investigation of complex stress-optical functions. It also yields the hydrostatic pressure induced changes in the dielectric functions. Data obtained recently for diamond and zincblende-type crystals and their theoretical interpretation are discussed.
  • Carlberg, M H, et al. (författare)
  • Defects and energy accommodation in epitaxial sputter deposited Mo/W superlattices studied by molecular dynamics
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Thin Solid Films. - : Elsevier. - 0040-6090 .- 1879-2731. ; 317:1-2, s. 10-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report here the results of a Molecular Dynamics-Embedded Atom Method-investigation of the pathways generating point defects in Mo/W superlattices during bombardment with energetic (50 to 200 eV) Ar and Kr neutrals. Energy accommodation coefficients are computed for the different structures and are found to be roughly independent of the incident energy, and substantially higher for structures with Mo on top. Several different types of defects are shown, and two general processes generating those are discussed. Trapping of the incoming noble gas was observed for the case of Kr impinging on structures with Mo as the top monolayer; this is interpreted as an effect of the small mass difference between the Mo and the Kr atoms. An increase in atomic mass of the gas translates into a more disparate behaviour of the studied structures. The energy exchange with the surface layer dictates the behaviour of the superlattice; this is accentuated when bombarding with the heavier gas, Kr. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science S.A.
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