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Sökning: L773:0160 2527 OR L773:1873 6386

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  • Dåderman, Anna Maria, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Degree of psychopathy : implications for treatment in male juvenile delinquents
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - Oxford : Pergamon Press. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 26:3, s. 301-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that psychopathy in adulthood has its roots in childhood. The psychopathy concept described by Cleckley (1976) involves interpersonal, affective, and behavioral aspects. Moreover, children who show low levels of anxiety respond more poorly to treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess psychopathy in 56 male juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder, treated in youth correctional institutions for severe offenders. We used a modified Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) that has been used for young people (Forth et al., 1990). Each participant received PCL-R assessments from one rater, based on the file information and an extensive interview. Twenty-eight participants (50%) were rated by the second rater. Both the ICC and Cohens’s kappa revealed that the PCL-R ratings were reliable: the ICC(2,1) of the PCL-R total scores was 0.90, F(27, 28) = 11.70, P < .0001; Cohen’s kappa = 0.64, P < .001. The final scores on the PCL-R showed that the base rate for psychopathy (defined as a score of 30 or more) in the sample was 59% (33 of 56 juvenile delinquents). The mean PCL-R total score for all 56 participants was 29.3 (S.D. = 7.8), and ranged between 12 and 40. The high rates of psychopathy found in juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder should alert clinicians to the necessity of psychopathy scoring, and shows that high-quality treatment programs are needed. Psychopathy is not currently considered when assessing and treating young people in state-administered observational and correctional institutions for juvenile delinquents in Sweden.
  • af Klinteberg, Britt, et al. (författare)
  • Projective risk variables in early adolescence and subsequent disinhibitory psychopathology
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:3, s. 210-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to examine early adolescent projective risk indicators for the development of antisocial behaviour as related to adult personality traits, psychopathy, and violent behaviour over the life span. Assessment data included Rorschach (Rr) ratings (at age 11–14 years), personality inventories (EPQ-I and KSP scales), and a shortened Psychopathy Check List (PCL) (administered at age 32–40 years), obtained from a group of 199 male subjects; and smoking habits (at age 36–44 years) obtained from 125 of those subjects. Results, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups, as determined by level of total Rr risk scores, were (1) significantly higher on self-rated IVE Impulsiveness, the anxiety-related KSP Muscular Tension, and nonconformity traits, as compared to the low Rr risk group — the very high risk group also scoring significantly higher on the EPQ Psychoticism scale, related to aggressiveness and cruelty; (2) higher on clinically rated PCL total sum and factor scores; and (3) they were overrepresented among Ss with subsequent violent offence, and Ss with heavy smoking habits. The results are discussed in terms of the possible usefulness of psychodynamic oriented cognitive-emotional indicators in the search for underlying mechanisms in the development of disinhibitory psychopathology.
  • Anckarsäter, Henrik, 1966, et al. (författare)
  • Mental disorder is a cause of crime - the cornerstone of forensic psychiatry
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International journal of law and psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0160-2527. ; 32:6, s. 342-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The assumption that mental disorder is a cause of crime is the foundation of forensic psychiatry, but conceptual, epistemological, and empirical analyses show that neither mental nor crime, or the causation implied, are clear-cut concepts. “Mental” denotes heterogeneous aspects of a person such as inner experiences, cognitive abilities, and behaviour patterns described in a non-physical vocabulary. In psychology and psychiatry, mental describes law-bound, caused aspects of human functioning that are predictable and generalizable. Problems defined as mental disorders are end-points of dimensional inter-individual differences rather than natural categories. Deficits in cognitive faculties, such as attention, verbal understanding, impulse control, and reality assessment, may be susceptibility factors that relate to behaviours (such as crimes) by increasing the probability (risk) for a negative behaviour or constitute causes in the sense of INUS conditions (Insufficient but Non-redundant parts of Unnecessary but Sufficient conditions). Attributing causes to complex behaviours such as crimes is not an unbiased process, and mental disorders will attract disproportionate attention when it comes to explanations of behaviours that we wish to distance ourselves from. Only by rigorous interpretation of what psychiatry actually can inform us about, using empirical analyses of quantified aggressive antisocial behaviours and their possible explanatory factors, can we gain a clearer notion of the relationship between mental disorder and crime.
  • Andershed, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Does the three-factor model of psychopathy identify a problematic subgroup of young offenders?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:3, s. 189-198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study tests the utility of the personality-based three-factor model of psychopathy according to the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). This model of psychopathy excludes aspects of criminal behavior as opposed to other models of psychopathy. The main research question was to what extent the three-factor model of psychopathy can identify a problematic subgroup of young offenders. The sample consisted of 148 incarcerated young male criminal offenders, between 15 and 25 years of age (mean=19.07, SD=2.11) who were recruited from a central detention center for young offenders in a northern German county. Model-based cluster analysis of the three psychopathy factors showed that three different clusters labeled: (i) Unemotional/Impulsive-Irresponsible, (ii) Low traits, and (iii) Psychopathic personality, had the best fit to the data. The psychopathic personality cluster with high scores on all three factors of the PCL:SV exhibited, as expected, a significantly higher prevalence of conduct disorder and substance use problems, but was not significantly different from the other clusters on past criminality and previous incarcerations. In conclusion, the results showed that the three-factor model of psychopathy can be useful in identifying a problematic subgroup of young offenders. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Bergenheim, Åsa, 1954- (författare)
  • Sexual assault, irresistible impulses, and forensic psychiatry in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 37:1, s. 99-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After forensic psychiatry was firmly established in Sweden in the 1930s, many rapists and individuals charged with assaulting children underwent a forensic psychiatric examination. The physicians found that most of them had not been “in control” of their senses or not “in complete control” of their senses at the time of the crime. If the court ordered a forensic psychiatric examination, the defendant had a very good chance of either being discharged or having his sentence reduced considerably. By the 1950s psychological perspectives began to dominate in forensic psychiatry. In the forensic records of the 1950s we can notice a shift from a biomedical to a socio-psychological perspective, and crime was increasingly related to conditions that were not seen as mental derangement from a legal point of view. As a result, it became less and less common, from the 1950s onwards, for sentences to be commuted or defendants discharged.
  • Diesen, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Sex crime legislation : Proactive and anti-therapeutic effects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 33:06-maj, s. 329-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Therapeutic jurisprudence may have its major role within law practice, but analysis of the law from a therapeutic perspective is a task that should not be neglected: how a piece of legislation is designed and formulated certainly influences the therapeutic outcome of a legal process. This article uses sex legislation as an example to demonstrate how the old rape law based on coercion has anti-therapeutic effects on rape victims. If the law requires resistance, it implies that a woman is sexually available until she resists physically, resulting in an attitude that a woman reporting rape without injuries should be mistrusted. This mistrust of the victim and the victim's attendant feelings of self-blame aggravate the victim's trauma. On the other hand, a modern rape law based on lack of consent gives the signal that a woman is not available until she has given her consent, resulting in a different starting position for the investigation. Since the will of the victim must be respected, the victim herself must be respected in the legal process. Furthermore, being able to tell one's story in a respectful atmosphere can be more important for the well-being of the victim than the outcome of the reported case.
  • Dåderman, Anna Maria, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Psychopathy-related personality traits in male juvenile delinquents : an application of a person-oriented approach
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - Göttingen : Elsevier. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 27:1, s. 45-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some personality characteristics, such as impulsiveness, thrill seeking, and the need for change, are clearly relevant when studying psychopathy. Psychopaths are certainly avid sensation seekers. The primary aim of the present study was to identify common patterns with respect to psychopathy-related personality traits in a sample of 56 juveniles from four Swedish national correctional institutions for juvenile delinquents. Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Impulsiveness scale from the Impulsiveness–Venturesomeness–Empathy (IVE) inventory and the Total Sensation-Seeking scale from the SSS-V were used to determine personality traits. Cluster analysis was performed with SLEIPNER. Ward’s hierarchical minimum variance clustering method was used. We discovered seven clusters of participants. The mean T scores of the profiles of personality traits in the clusters (the cluster centroids) have been used to describe the clusters. Three multideviant clusters emerged, into which 31 (63%) of the classified participants could be placed. To describe the clusters, the prevalence of participants with a high degree of psychopathy (cutoff PCL-R score 27or above) was computed for each cluster and was complemented with data on previous treatment occasions and reoffending. The results indicated that psychopaths may develop different personality pattern; each cluster contained participants with high values of the PCL-R. Deviant personality is not currently considered when assessing and treating people in state administered observational and correctional institutions for juvenile delinquents in Sweden. The present results suggest that young people with psychopathy are not a homogenous group but may develop various personality traits. This should have implications for risk assessment and treatment.
  • Grann, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Methodological development : structured outcome assessment and community risk monitoring (SORM)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 28:4, s. 442-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes an effort to develop a clinical tool for the continuous monitoring of risk for violence in forensic mental health clients who have left their institutions and who are dwelling in the community on a conditional release basis. The model is called Structured Outcome Assessment and Community Risk Monitoring (SORM). The SORM consists of 30 dynamic factors and each factor in SORM is assessed in two ways: The current absence, presence or partial och intermittent presence of the factors, which is an actuarial (systematized and 'objective') assessment. Secondly, the risk effect, i.e. whether the presence/absence of factors currently increases, decreases or is perceived as unrelated to violence risk, is a clinical (or impressionistic) assessment. Thus, the factors considered via the SORM can be coded as risk factors or protective factors (or as factors unimportant to risk of violence) depending on circumstances that apply in the individual case. Further, the SORM has a built-in module for gathering idiographical information about risk-affecting contextual factors. The use of the SORM and its potential as a risk monitoring instrument is illustrated via preliminary data and case vignettes from an ongoing multicenter project. In this research project, patients leaving any of the 9 participating forensic hospitals in Sweden is assessed at release on a variety of static background factors, and the SORM is then administered every 30 days for 2 years.
  • Grazier, Kyle L, et al. (författare)
  • Rationing psychosocial treatments in the United States
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 28:5, s. 545-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper briefly reviews the recent history of psychosocial treatment for adults with severe mental illnesses in the United States. It examines the current sources and financing of such care, revealing the planned and unplanned reclassification of entitled beneficiaries and eligible patients, appropriate treatment, acceptable outcomes, and levels and sources of payment. One illustration of this phenomenon is seen in current efforts to identify and deliver only those public services that are covered by Medicaid, so as to allocate state resources only when they can be matched by federal monies. Another is the reliance on private health insurance, tied in the U.S. almost exclusively to employment, for medical care delivered under an acute, rather than a chronic care model. These analyses conclude with a discussion of the implicit and explicit mechanisms used to ration access to psychosocial treatment in the United States. The implications for individuals with serious mental illnesses, their families, and the general public are placed in historical and current policy contexts, recognizing the economic, social, and clinical variables that can moderate outcomes. 
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