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1.
  • Merid, Simon Kebede, et al. (författare)
  • Integration of gene expression and DNA methylation identifies epigenetically controlled modules related to PM2.5 exposure
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset. - 0160-4120. ; 146, s. 106248-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects across the life-course. Although underlying mechanisms are unclear, several studies suggested pollutant-induced changes in transcriptomic profiles. In this meta-analysis of transcriptome-wide association studies of 656 children and adolescents from three European cohorts participating in the MeDALL Consortium, we found two differentially expressed transcript clusters (FDR p < 0.05) associated with exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) at birth, one of them mapping to the MIR1296 gene. Further, by integrating gene expression with DNA methylation using Functional Epigenetic Modules algorithms, we identified 9 and 6 modules in relation to PM2.5 exposure at birth and at current address, respectively (including NR1I2, MAPK6, TAF8 and SCARA3). In conclusion, PM2.5 exposure at birth was linked to differential gene expression in children and adolescents. Importantly, we identified several significant interactome hotspots of gene modules of relevance for complex diseases in relation to PM2.5 exposure.
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2.
  • Pettersson, Catharina, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in molecular weight of humic substances in the Gulf of Bothnia
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 22:5, s. 551-558
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Humic substances were isolated in the brackish Gulf of Bothnia utilizing two techniques: ion exchange on DEAE-cellulose and hydrophobic interaction on XAD-8 resin. The salinity of the water resulted in different yields for the two adsorbents. With XAD-8 resin, 30–80% of the organic carbon was isolated, whereas 5–20% was isolated on the DEAE-cellulose. The concentration of total organic carbon was rather constant but the concentration of humic substances decreased with increasing salinity. Gel filtration was used to measure the homogeneity of the humic fraction. Humic substances isolated in December were more homogeneous than those isolated in June, which indicates a degradation during the summer period which might be caused by photolysis or increased microbial degradation during the warm season.
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3.
  • Agerstrand, M, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for Pharmaceuticals--an empirical investigation of the motivations, intentions and expectations underlying its development and implementation.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 35:5, s. 778-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2005 the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF) initiated a national environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals. This investigation reports the results from a survey, conducted among the persons involved in the start-up process. The aim of this study is to generate knowledge contributing to the clarification of the motivations, expectations, and intentions underlying the development and implementation of the system. The decision to implement a classification and information system for pharmaceuticals was the result of a combination of several driving forces, mainly political pressure and a possibility to increase the industries' goodwill, while at the same time keeping the process under the industries' control. The expected possible effects of the system, other than increased goodwill, are according to this survey assumed to be low. The system offers little guidance for end-users in the substitution of one pharmaceutical for another. One possible reason for this could be that LIF needs to observe the interests of all its members' and should not affect competition. The affiliation of the involved actors correlates to how these actors view and value the system, but this has not hampered the collaborative process to develop and implement it.
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4.
  • Ahmad, Arslan, et al. (författare)
  • Arsenic reduction to < 1 mu g/L in Dutch drinking water
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 134
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element which naturally occurs in drinking water. In spite of substantial evidence on the association between many illnesses and chronic consumption of As, there is still a considerable uncertainty about the health risks due to low As concentrations in drinking water. In the Netherlands, drinking water companies aim to supply water with As concentration of < 1 mu g/L - a water quality goal which is tenfold more stringent than the current WHO guideline. This paper provides (i) an account on the assessed lung cancer risk for the Dutch population due to pertinent low-level As in drinking water and cost-comparison between health care provision and As removal from water, (ii) an overview of As occurrence and mobility in drinking water sources and water treatment systems in the Netherlands and (iii) insights into As removal methods that have been employed or under investigation to achieve As reduction to < 1 mu g/L at Dutch water treatment plants. Lowering of the average As concentration to < 1 mu g/L in the Netherlands is shown to result in an annual benefit of 7.2-14 M(sic). This study has a global significance for setting drinking water As limits and provision of safe drinking water.
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5.
  • Akesson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of heart failure - A population-based prospective cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 126, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on heart failure (HF) may be modified by contaminants in fish. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of particular concern as they have been associated with well-established risk factors of HF, but current data are limited. Objectives: We aimed to assess the association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of HF, accounting for dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids. Design: We used the prospective population-based research structure SIMPLER (previously the Swedish Mammography Cohort and Cohort of Swedish Men) comprising 32,952 women and 36,546 men, free from cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes at baseline in 1997. Validated estimates of dietary PCBs and long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident cases of HF were ascertained through register linkage. Results: During an average of 12 years of follow-up, we ascertained 2736 and 3128 incident cases of HF in women and men, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted models, mutually adjusted for PCBs and EPA-DHA, the relative risk (RR) for dietary PCB exposure was 1.48 (95% CI 1.12-1.96) in women and 1.42 (95% CI 1.08-1.86) in men, comparing extreme quintiles. Corresponding RRs for EPA-DHA intake were 0.71 (95% CI 0.54-0.93) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.63-1.07), respectively. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to PCBs was associated with an increased risk of HF in both women and men. EPA-DHA intake was associated with a lower risk of HF in women, with a similar tendency in men.
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6.
  • Aro, R., et al. (författare)
  • Extractable organofluorine analysis: A way to screen for elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance contamination in humans?
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ubiquitous occurrence of a few per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in humans and the environment has been previously reported. However, the number of PFAS humans and the environment are potentially exposed to is much higher, making it difficult to investigate every sample in detail. More importantly, recent studies have shown an increasing fraction of potentially unknown PFAS in human samples. A screening tool for identifying samples of concern that may contain high PFAS levels, to be studied more thoroughly, is needed. This study presents a simplified workflow to detect elevated PFAS levels using extractable organofluorine (EOF) analysis. A fluorine mass balance analysis on samples with high EOF, targeting 63 PFAS, can then confirm the PFAS contamination. Whole blood samples from a cohort of individuals with historical drinking water contamination from firefighting foams (n = 20) in Ronneby (Sweden) and a control group (n = 9) with background exposure were used as a case study. The average EOF concentration in the Ronneby group was 234 ng/ mL F (<107-592 ng/mL F) vs 24.8 ng/mL F (17.6-37.8 ng/mL F) in the control group. The large difference (statistically significant, p < 0.05) in the EOF levels between the exposed and control groups would have made it possible to identify samples with high PFAS exposure only using EOF data. This was confirmed by target analysis, which found an average n-ary sumation PFAS concentration of 346 ng/mL in the exposed group and 7.9 ng/mL in the control group. The limit of quantification for EOF analysis (up to 107 ng/mL F using 0.5 mL whole blood) did not allow for the detection of PFAS levels in low or sub parts per billion (ng/mL) concentrations, but the results indicate that EOF analysis is a suitable screening method sensitive enough to detect elevated/significant/exposure above background levels by known or unknown PFAS.
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7.
  • Augustsson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells : Expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 68, s. 192-199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways.
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8.
  • Augustsson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 113, s. 269-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, medianand high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss - especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.
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9.
  • Ax, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 75, s. 93-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.Methods: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.Results: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.Conclusion: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.
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10.
  • Bahram, Mohammad (författare)
  • A global overview of the trophic structure within microbiomes across ecosystems
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The colossal project of mapping the microbiome on Earth is rapidly advancing, with a focus on individual microbial groups. However, a global assessment of the associations between predatory protists and their bacterial prey is still missing at a cross-ecosystem level. This knowledge is critical to better understand the importance of top-down links in structuring microbiomes. Here, we examined 38 sequence-based datasets of paired bacterial and protistan taxa, covering 3,178 samples from diverse habitats including freshwater, marine and soils. We show that community profiles of protists and bacteria strongly correlated across and within habitats, with trophic microbiome structures fundamentally differing across habitats. Soils hosted the most heterogenous and diverse microbiomes. Protist communities were dominated by predators in soils and phototrophs in aquatic environments. This led to changes in the ratio of total protists to bacteria richness, which was highest in marine, while that of predatory protists to bacteria was highest in soils. Taxon richness and relative abundance of predatory protists positively correlated with bacterial richness in marine habitats. These links differed between soils, predatory protist richness and the relative abundance of predatory protists positively correlated with bacterial richness in forest and grassland soils, but not in agricultural soils. Our results suggested that anthropogenic pressure affects higher trophic levels more than lower ones leading to a decoupled trophic structure in micro biomes. Together, our cumulative overview of microbiome patterns of bacteria and protists at the global scale revealed major patterns and differences of the trophic structure of microbiomes across Earth?s habitats, and show that anthropogenic factors might have negative effects on the trophic structure within microbiomes. Furthermore, the increased impact of anthropogenic factors on especially higher trophic levels suggests that often observed reduced ecosystem functions in anthropogenic systems might be partly attributed to a reduction of trophic complexity.
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