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Sökning: L773:0160 4120 OR L773:1873 6750 > (2015-2019)

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  • Akesson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of heart failure - A population-based prospective cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 126, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on heart failure (HF) may be modified by contaminants in fish. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of particular concern as they have been associated with well-established risk factors of HF, but current data are limited. Objectives: We aimed to assess the association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of HF, accounting for dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids. Design: We used the prospective population-based research structure SIMPLER (previously the Swedish Mammography Cohort and Cohort of Swedish Men) comprising 32,952 women and 36,546 men, free from cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes at baseline in 1997. Validated estimates of dietary PCBs and long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident cases of HF were ascertained through register linkage. Results: During an average of 12 years of follow-up, we ascertained 2736 and 3128 incident cases of HF in women and men, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted models, mutually adjusted for PCBs and EPA-DHA, the relative risk (RR) for dietary PCB exposure was 1.48 (95% CI 1.12-1.96) in women and 1.42 (95% CI 1.08-1.86) in men, comparing extreme quintiles. Corresponding RRs for EPA-DHA intake were 0.71 (95% CI 0.54-0.93) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.63-1.07), respectively. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to PCBs was associated with an increased risk of HF in both women and men. EPA-DHA intake was associated with a lower risk of HF in women, with a similar tendency in men.
  • Augustsson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 113, s. 269-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, medianand high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss - especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.
  • Ax, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 75, s. 93-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.Methods: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.Results: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.Conclusion: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.
  • Axelsson, Jonatan, et al. (författare)
  • Phthalate exposure and reproductive parameters in young men from the general Swedish population.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 1873-6750 .- 0160-4120. ; 85, s. 54-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In animals, exposure to certain phthalates negatively affects the male reproductive function. Human results are conflicting and mostly based on subfertile males, in whom the association between exposure and reproductive function may differ from the general population.
  • Balducci, Catia, et al. (författare)
  • Cocaine and cannabinoids in the atmosphere of Northern Europe cities, comparison with Southern Europe and wastewater analysis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 97, s. 187-194
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study reports the first investigation of atmospheric illicit drug concentrations in Northern Europe usingmeasurements of cocaine and cannabinoids in Amsterdam, London and Stockholm. Further, these measurements were compared to those made in Rome to explore the geographical and inter-city variability. Co-located measurements of atmospheric particulate mass and PAHs were used to help describe and interpret the illicit drug measurements with respect to atmospheric dispersion. Cocaine concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.14 ng/m(3) in Amsterdam, from 0.02 to 0.33 ng/m(3) in London and were below quantification limit (3pg/m(3)) in Stockholm. Cannabinol was the only cannabinoidmolecule detected in the three cities. During this campaign, London reported the highest concentrations of cocaine and meaningful differences were detected between the urban background and city centre London sites. Mean cocaine concentrations measured in Amsterdam during March 2011 were also compared with those measured simultaneously in eight Italian cities. The cocaine concentration inAmsterdamwas comparable to that measured at an urban background inMilan and at a densely populated site in Florence. Although correlating atmospheric concentrations directlywith drug prevalence is not possible using current data, links between concentrations of cocaine and estimates of abuse prevalence assessed by the more routinely usedwastewater analysiswere also examined. A statistically significant correlationwas found between the two sets of data (R-2= 0.66; p= 0.00131). Results confirmed that meteorology, population rate and habits of consumption influence the atmospheric concentrations of drugs. If these confounding factors were better controlled for, the techniques described here could became an easy and cost effective tool to index the impact of cocaine abuse in the area; especially where local hot spots need to be identified.
  • Banjop-Kharlygdoh, Joubert, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a group of brominated flame retardants as novel androgen receptor antagonists and potential neuronal and endocrine disrupters
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 74, s. 60-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used in industrial products to reduce the risk of fire. However, their continuous release into the environment is a concern as they are often persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic. Information on the impact these compounds have on human health and wildlife is limited and only a few of them have been identified to disrupt hormone receptor functions. In the present study we used in silico modeling to determine the interactions of selected BFRs with the human androgen receptor (AR). Three compounds were found to dock into the ligand-binding domain of the human AR and these were further tested using in vitro analysis. Allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE) and 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) were observed to act as AR antagonists. These BFRs have recently been detected in the environment, in house dust and in aquatic animals. The compounds have been detected at high concentrations in both blubber and brain of seals and we therefore also assessed their impact on the expression of L-type amino acid transporter system (LAT) genes, that are needed for amino acid uptake across the blood-brain barrier, as disruption of LAT gene function has been implicated in several brain disorders. The three BFRs down-regulated the expression of AR target genes that encode for prostate specific antigen (PSA), 5. α-reductases and β-microseminoprotein. The potency of PSA inhibition was of the same magnitude as the common prostate cancer drugs, demonstrating that these compounds are strong AR antagonists. Western blot analysis of AR protein showed that ATE, BATE and DPTE decreased the 5. α-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR protein levels, further confirming that these BFRs act as AR antagonists. The transcription of the LAT genes was altered by the three BFRs, indicating an effect on amino-acid uptake across cellular membranes and blood-brain barrier. This study demonstrated that ATE, BATE and DPTE are potent AR antagonists and the alterations in LAT gene transcription suggest that these compounds can affect neuronal functions and should be considered as potential neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting compounds.
  • Bengtsson-Palme, Johan, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Concentrations of antibiotics predicted to select for resistant bacteria: Proposed limits for environmental regulation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 86, s. 140-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are concerns that selection pressure from antibiotics in the environment may accelerate the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Nevertheless, there is currently no regulatory system that takes such risks into account. In part, this is due to limited knowledge of environmental concentrations that might exert selection for resistant bacteria. To experimentally determine minimal selective concentrations in complex microbial ecosystems for all antibiotics would involve considerable effort. In this work, our aim was to estimate upper boundaries for selective concentrations for all common antibiotics, based on the assumption that selective concentrations a priori need to be lower than those completely inhibiting growth. Data on Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were obtained for 111 antibiotics from the public EUCAST database. The 1% lowest observed MICs were identified, and to compensate for limited species coverage, predicted lowest MICs adjusted for the number of tested species were extrapolated through modeling. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection were then assessed using an assessment factor of 10 to account for differences between MICs and minimal selective concentrations. The resulting PNECs ranged from 8 ng/L to 64 μg/L. Furthermore, the link between taxonomic similarity between species and lowest MIC was weak. This work provides estimated upper boundaries for selective concentrations (lowest MICs) and PNECs for resistance selection for all common antibiotics. In most cases, PNECs for selection of resistance were below available PNECs for ecotoxicological effects. The generated PNECs can guide implementation of compound-specific emission limits that take into account risks for resistance promotion.
  • Bengtsson-Palme, Johan, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Protection goals must guide risk assessment for antibiotics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment international. - : Elsevier BV. - 1873-6750 .- 0160-4120. ; 111, s. 352-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a recent paper published in Environment International, Le Page et al. (2017) stress that discharge limits for antibiotics need to consider their potency to affect both environmental and human health, a very sound standpoint also from our point of view. It is reasoned that predicted no-effect concentrations for resistance selection (PNECs) derived from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the most sensitive studied human-associated bacteria (Bengtsson-Palme and Larsson, 2016a), may not be sufficiently protective as environmental cyanobacteria in many cases appear to be more sensitive, according to the authors. The antibiotic resistance health crisis, and the growing understanding of the contribution of the environment in this development, indicates an urgent need for discharge limits for antibiotics, particularly for industrial sources (Bengtsson-Palme and Larsson, 2016b). Such limits would have tremendous value in regulation efforts (Government of India, 2017), for initiatives from the industry themselves (IFPMA, 2016), and for development of environmental criteria within public procurement and generic exchange programs (Bengtsson-Palme et al., 2018; Laurell et al., 2014; SPHS Secreteriat, UNDP Istanbul Regional Hub, 2015). However, somewhat in contrast to what the authors conclude, we do not think there is evidence that cyanobacteria would often be more sensitive to antibiotics than the most sensitive human-associated bacteria. Importantly, we also think that it is a bit unclear from the paper which protection goals are considered (protecting microbial diversity in ecosystems, protecting ecosystem functions and services, or protecting from risks for resistance selection) and particularly in what ways ecotoxicological test data could inform each of these targets.
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