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1.
  • Jacobsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Differential regulation of fatty acid elongation enzymes in brown adipocytes imply an unique role for Elovl3 during increased fatty acid oxidation
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0193-1849 .- 1522-1555. ; 289, s. 517-526
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The expression of the Elovl3 gene, which belongs to the Elovl gene family coding for microsomal enzymes involved in very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongation, is dramatically increased in mouse brown adipose tissue upon cold stimulation. In the present study, we show that the cold-induced Elovl3 expression is under the control of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR) and that this regulation is part of a fundamental divergence in the regulation of expression for the different members of the Elovl gene family. In cultured brown adipocytes, a mixture of norepinephrine, dexamethasone, and the PPAR ligand Wy-14643, which rendered the adipocytes a high oxidative state, was required for substantial induction of Elovl3 expression, whereas the same treatment suppressed Elovl1 mRNA levels. The nuclear liver X receptor (LXR) has been implicated in the control of fatty acid synthesis and subsequent lipogenic processes in several tissues. This regulation is also exerted in part by sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), which is a target gene of LXR. We found that stimulation of Elovl3 expression was independent of LXR and SREBP-1 activation. In addition, exposure to the LXR agonist TO-901317 increased nuclear abundance of LXR and mature SREBP-1 as well as expression of the elongases Lce and Elovl1 in a lipogenic fashion but repressed Elovl3 expression. A functional consequence of this was seen on the level of esterified saturated fatty acids, such as C22:0, which was coupled to Elovl3 expression. These data demonstrate differential transcriptional regulation and concomitantly different functional roles for fatty acid elongases in lipid metabolism of brown adipocytes, which reflects the metabolic status of the cells.
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2.
  • Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Adrenergically-stimulated blood flow in brown adipose tissue is not dependent on thermogenesis : Regulation of brown adipose tissue blood flow
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0193-1849 .- 1522-1555. ; 308:9, s. E822-E829
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on blood flow to be supplied with nutrients and oxygen, and for the distribution of the generated heat to the rest of the body. It is therefore fundamental to understand the mechanisms by which blood flow is regulated and its relation to thermogenesis. Here we present high-resolution laser-Doppler imaging (HR-LDR) as a novel method for noninvasive, in vivo measurement of BAT blood flow in mice. Using HR-LDR, we found that norepinephrine stimulation increases BAT blood flow in a dose-dependent manner, and that this response is profoundly modulated by environmental temperature acclimation. Surprisingly, we found that mice lacking uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) have fully preserved BAT blood flow response to norepinephrine, despite failing to perform thermogenesis. BAT blood flow was not directly correlated to systemic glycaemia, but glucose injections could transiently increase tissue perfusion. Inguinal white adipose tissue, also known as a brite/beige adipose tissue, was also sensitive to cold acclimation and similarly increased blood flow in response to norepinephrine. In conclusion, using a novel non-invasive method to detect BAT perfusion, we demonstrate that adrenergically-stimulated BAT blood flow is qualitatively and quantitatively fully independent of thermogenesis, and is therefore not a reliable parameter for the estimation of BAT activation and heat generation.
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3.
  • Akerud, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Lactate distribution in culture medium of human myometrial biopsies incubated under different conditions
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0193-1849 .- 1522-1555. ; 297:6, s. E1414-E1419
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is generally believed that a relationship exists between muscle fatigue and intracellular accumulation of lactate. This reasoning is relevant to obstetrical issues. Myocytes in uterus work together during labor, and the contractions need to be strong and synchronized for a child to be delivered. At labor dystocia, the progress of labor becomes slow or arrested after a normal beginning. It has been described that, during labor dystocia, when the force of the contractions is low, the uterus is under hypoxia, and anaerobic conditions with high levels of lactate in amniotic fluid dominate. The purpose of this study was to examine whether myometrial cells are involved in the production of lactate in amniotic fluid and whether there are differences in production and distribution of lactate in cells incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We also wanted to elucidate the involvement of specific membrane-bound lactate carriers. Women undergoing elective caesarean section were included. Myometrial biopsies from uteri were collected and subjected to either immunohistochemistry to identify lactate carriers or in vitro experiments to analyze production of lactate. The presence of lactate carriers named monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 was verified. Myometrial cells produced lactate extracellularly, and the lactate carriers operated differently under anaerobic and aerobic conditions; while being mainly unidirectional under anaerobic conditions, they became bidirectional under aerobic conditions. Human myometrial cells produced and delivered lactate to the extracellular medium under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The delivery was mediated by lactate carriers.
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4.
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5.
  • Améen, Caroline, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of gender and GH secretory pattern on sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and its target genes in rat liver.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. - 0193-1849. ; 287:6, s. E1039-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated whether the sexually dimorphic secretory pattern of growth hormone (GH) in the rat regulates hepatic gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its target genes. SREBP-1c, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) mRNA were more abundant in female than in male livers, whereas acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) were similarly expressed in both sexes. Hypophysectomized female rats were given GH as a continuous infusion or as two daily injections for 7 days to mimic the female- and male-specific GH secretory patterns, respectively. The female pattern of GH administration increased the expression of SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD-1, and GPAT mRNA, whereas the male pattern of GH administration increased only SCD-1 mRNA. FAS and SCD-1 protein levels were regulated in a similar manner by GH. Incubation of primary rat hepatocytes with GH increased SCD-1 mRNA levels and decreased FAS and GPAT mRNA levels but had no effect on SREBP-1c mRNA. GH decreased hepatic liver X receptor-alpha (LXRalpha) mRNA levels both in vivo and in vitro. Feminization of the GH plasma pattern in male rats by administration of GH as a continuous infusion decreased insulin sensitivity and increased expression of FAS and GPAT mRNA but had no effect on SREBP-1c, ACC1, SCD-1, or LXRalpha mRNA. In conclusion, FAS and GPAT are specifically upregulated by the female secretory pattern of GH. This regulation is not a direct effect of GH on hepatocytes and does not involve changed expression of SREBP-1c or LXRalpha mRNA but is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity.
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6.
  • Andersson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of physical exercise on phospholipid fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0193-1849 .- 1522-1555. ; 274:37, s. E432-E438
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effects of low-intensity exercise on the fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle and in serum were studied in 19 sedentary, middle-aged Swedish men. During a 10-wk period, all subjects were given a standardized diet with an identical fat composition. After 4 wk on this diet, they were randomly allocated to a daily exercise program (55% peak oxygen uptake) or to continue to live a sedentary life for the remaining 6 wk. Aerobic capacity (submaximal bicycle test) and peripheral insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) improved with training, whereas the body weight as well as the body composition (underwater weighing and bioimpedance) were unchanged. The proportions of palmitic acid (16:0) and linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and the sum of n-6 fatty acids [18:2(n-6), 20:3(n-6), 20:4(n-6)] were decreased in skeletal muscle phospholipids, whereas the proportion of oleic acid [18:1(n-9)] was increased, by training. The fatty acid profile in skeletal muscle triglycerides remained unchanged. We conclude that regular low-intensity exercise influences the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids in skeletal muscle, which hypothetically may contribute to changes of the skeletal muscle membrane fluidity and influence the peripheral insulin sensitivity.
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7.
  • Andersson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids in trained and untrained young men
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0193-1849 .- 1522-1555. ; 279:4, s. E744-E751
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endurance trained (n = 14) and untrained young men (n = 15) were compared regarding the fatty acid profile of the vastus lateralis muscle after 8 wk on diets with a similar fatty acid composition. The skeletal muscle phospholipids in the trained group contained lower proportions of palmitic acid (16:0) (-12.4%, P < 0.001) and di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid [20:3(n-6)] (-15.3%, P = 0.018), a lower n-6-to-n-3 ratio (-42.0%, P = 0.015), higher proportions of stearic acid (18:0) (+9.8%, P = 0.004) and sum of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (+33.8%, P = 0.009), and a higher ratio between 20:4(n-6) to 20:3(n-6) (+18.4%, P = 0.006) compared with those in the untrained group. The group differences in 16:0, 20:3(n-6), 18:0/16:0, and 20:4(n-6)/20:3(n-6) were independent of fiber-type distribution. The trained group also showed a lower proportion of 16:0 (-7.9%, P < 0.001) in skeletal muscle triglycerides irrespective of fiber type. In conclusion, the fatty acid profile of the skeletal muscle differed between trained and untrained individuals, although the dietary fatty acid composition was similar. This difference was not explained by different fiber-type distribution alone but appears to be a direct consequence of changes in fatty acid metabolism due to the higher level of physical activity.
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8.
  • Annerén, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Glucose intolerance and reduced islet blood flow in transgenic mice expressing the FRK tyrosine kinase under the control of the rat insulin promoter
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0193-1849 .- 1522-1555. ; 292:4, s. E1183-E1190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The FRK tyrosine kinase has previously been shown to transduce β-cell cytotoxic signals in response to cytokines and streptozotocin and to promote β-cell proliferation and an increased β-cell mass. We therefore aimed to further evaluate the effects of overexpression of FRK tyrosine kinase in β-cells. A transgenic mouse expressing kinase-active FRK under control of the insulin promoter (RIP-FRK) was studied with regard to islet endocrine function and vascular morphology. Mild glucose intolerance develops in RIP-FRK male mice of at least 4 mo of age. This effect is accompanied by reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo and reduced second-phase insulin secretion in response to glucose and arginine upon pancreas perfusion. Islets isolated from the FRK transgenic mice display a glucose-induced insulin secretory response in vitro similar to that of control islets. However, islet blood flow per islet volume is decreased in the FRK transgenic mice. These mice also exhibit a reduced islet capillary lumen diameter as shown by electron microscopy. Total body weight and pancreas weight are not significantly affected, but the β-cell mass is increased. The data suggest that long-term expression of active FRK in β-cells causes an in vivo insulin-secretory defect, which may be the consequence of islet vascular abnormalities that yield a decreased islet blood flow.
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9.
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10.
  • Apró, William, et al. (författare)
  • Resistance exercise induced mTORC1 signaling is not impaired by subsequent endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0193-1849 .- 1522-1555. ; 305:1, s. E22-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current dogma is that the muscle adaptation to resistance exercise is blunted when combined with endurance exercise. The suggested mechanism (based on rodent experiments) is that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) during endurance exercise impairs muscle growth through inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The purpose of this study was to investigate potential interference of endurance training on the signaling pathway of resistance training [mTORC1 phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)] in human muscle. Ten healthy and moderately trained male subjects performed on two separate occasions either acute high-intensity and high-volume resistance exercise (leg press, R) or R followed by 30 min of cycling (RE). Muscle biopsies were collected before and 1 and 3 h post resistance exercise. Phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser(2448)) increased 2-fold (P < 0.05) and that of S6K1 (Thr(389)) 14-fold (P < 0.05), with no difference between R and RE. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2, Thr(56)) was reduced ∼70% during recovery in both trials (P < 0.05). An interesting finding was that phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr(172)) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, Ser(79)) decreased ∼30% and ∼50%, respectively, 3 h postexercise (P < 0.05). Proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) mRNA increased more after RE (6.5-fold) than after R (4-fold) (RE vs. R: P < 0.01) and was the only gene expressed differently between trials. These data show that the signaling of muscle growth through the mTORC1-S6K1 axis after heavy resistance exercise is not inhibited by subsequent endurance exercise. It is also suggested that prior activation of mTORC1 signaling may repress subsequent phosphorylation of AMPK.
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