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Sökning: L773:0264 6021 > (2010-2019)

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1.
  • Aguiló, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the human acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase gene by PPARgamma.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 427:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the cytosol of lipogenic tissue, ketone bodies are activated by AACS (acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase) and incorporated into cholesterol and fatty acids. AACS gene expression is particularly abundant in white adipose tissue, as it is induced during adipocyte differentiation. In order to elucidate the mechanism controlling the gene expression of human AACS and to clarify its physiological role, we isolated the human promoter, characterized the elements required to initiate transcription and analysed the expression of the gene in response to PPARgamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma), an inducer of adipogenesis. We show that the human AACS promoter is a PPARgamma target gene and that this nuclear receptor is recruited to the AACS promoter by direct interaction with Sp1 (stimulating protein-1).
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2.
  • Anders, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Globular C1q receptor (p33) binds and stabilizes pro-inflammatory MCP-1 : a novel mechanism for regulation of MCP-1 production and function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 475:4, s. 775-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The protein gC1qR (globular C1q receptor), also named p33, was originally identified as a binding partner of the globular heads of C1q in the complement system. gC1qR/p33 is abundantly expressed in many cell types, but the functional importance of this protein is not completely understood. Here, we investigate the impact of gC1qR/p33 on the production and function of the pathophysiologically important chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Knockdown of gC1qR/p33 negatively regulated the production of MCP-1, but had no effect on the expression of transcript for MCP-1 in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a translational/post-translational mechanism of action. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed considerable cytosolic co-localization of gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1, and co-immunoprecipitation disclosed direct physical interaction between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a high-affinity binding (KD = 10.9 nM) between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. Using a transwell migration assay, we found that recombinant gC1qR/p33 enhances MCP-1-induced migration of human THP-1 monocytes, pointing to a functional importance of the interaction between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. An in vitro assay revealed a rapid turnover of the MCP-1 protein and that gC1qR/ p33 stabilizes MCP-1, hence preventing its degradation. We propose that endogenous gC1qR/p33 physically interacts with MCP-1 causing stabilization of the MCP-1 protein and stimulation of its activity in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a novel gC1qR/p33-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanism of action.
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4.
  • Berndt, Carsten, et al. (författare)
  • Chelation of lysosomal iron protects against ionizing radiation.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 432:2, s. 295-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage and consequent apoptosis, mainly due to the production of hydroxyl radicals (HO•) that follows radiolytic splitting of water. However, superoxide (O2•-) and H2O2 also form and induce oxidative stress with resulting LMP (lysosomal membrane permeabilization) arising from iron-catalysed oxidative events. The latter will contribute significantly to radiation-induced cell death and its degree largely depends on the quantities of lysosomal redox-active iron present as a consequence of autophagy and endocytosis of iron-rich compounds. Therefore radiation sensitivity might be depressed by lysosome-targeted iron chelators. In the present study, we have shown that cells in culture are significantly protected from ionizing radiation damage if initially exposed to the lipophilic iron chelator SIH (salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone), and that this effect is based on SIH-dependent lysosomal stabilization against oxidative stress. According to its dose-response-modifying effect, SIH is a most powerful radioprotector and a promising candidate for clinical application, mainly to reduce the radiation sensitivity of normal tissue. We propose, as an example, that inhalation of SIH before each irradiation session by patients undergoing treatment for lung malignancies would protect normally aerated lung tissue against life-threatening pulmonary fibrosis, whereas the sensitivity of malignant lung tumours, which usually are non-aerated, will not be affected by inhaled SIH.
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5.
  • Bhongir, Ravi K. V., et al. (författare)
  • DNA-fragmentation is a source of bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 474:3, s. 411-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease also characterized by abundant extracellular DNA (eDNA) in the airways. The eDNA is mainly derived from neutrophils accumulating in the airways and contributes to a high sputum viscosity. The altered environment in the lower airways also paves the way for chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Here, we show that mice with P. aeruginosa airway infection have increased survival and decreased bacterial load after topical treatment with DNase. Furthermore, DNA from the sputum of CF patients showed increased bactericidal activity after treatment with DNase ex vivo. Both degraded DNA of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and genomic DNA degraded by serum, acquired bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa. In vitro, small synthetic DNA-fragments (<100 base pairs) but not large fragments nor genomic DNA, were bactericidal against Gram-negative but not Grampositive bacteria. The addition of divalent cations reduced bacterial killing, suggesting that chelation of divalent cations by DNA results in destabilization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) envelope. This is a novel antibacterial strategy where fragmentation of eDNA and DNA-fragments can be used to treat P. aeruginosa airway infection.
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6.
  • Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Polyamine homoeostasis as a drug target in pathogenic protozoa: peculiarities and possibilities
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - London : Portland Press. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 438, s. 229-244
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of tropical and subtropical parasitic diseases, such as African sleeping sickness. Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis and malaria. Enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis and thiol metabolism, as well as polyamine transporters, are potential drug targets within these organisms. In the present review, the current knowledge of unique properties of polyamine metabolism in these parasites is outlined. These properties include prozyme regulation of AdoMetDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) activity in trypanosomatids, co-expression of ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) and AdoMetDC activities in a single protein in plasmodia, and formation of trypanothione, a unique compound linking polyamine and thiol metabolism in trypanosomatids. Particularly interesting features within polyamine metabolism in these parasites are highlighted for their potential in selective therapeutic strategies.
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7.
  • Blombach, Fabian, et al. (författare)
  • Archaeal MBF1 binds to 30S and 70S ribosomes via its helix-turn-helix domain
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 462, s. 373-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MBF1 (multi-protein bridging factor 1) is a protein containing a conserved HTH (helix-turn-helix) domain in both eukaryotes and archaea. Eukaryotic MBF1 has been reported to function as a transcriptional co-activator that physically bridges transcription regulators with the core transcription initiation machinery of RNA polymerase II. In addition, MBF1 has been found to be associated with polyadenylated mRNA in yeast as well as in mammalian cells. aMBF1 (archaeal MBF1) is very well conserved among most archaeal lineages; however, its function has so far remained elusive. To address this, we have conducted a molecular characterization of this aMBF1. Affinity purification of interacting proteins indicates that aMBF1 binds to ribosomal subunits. On sucrose density gradients, aMBF1 co-fractionates with free 30S ribosomal subunits as well as with 70S ribosomes engaged in translation. Binding of aMBF1 to ribosomes does not inhibit translation. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show that aMBF1 contains a long intrinsically disordered linker connecting the predicted N-terminal zinc-ribbon domain with the C-terminal HTH domain. The HTH domain, which is conserved in all archaeal and eukaryotic MBF1 homologues, is directly involved in the association of aMBF1 with ribosomes. The disordered linker of the ribosome-bound aMBF1 provides the N-terminal domain with high flexibility in the aMBF1 ribosome complex. Overall, our findings suggest a role for aMBF1 in the archaeal translation process.
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8.
  • Brännström, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Ca2+ enhances Aβ polymerization rate and fibrillar stability in a dynamic manner
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 450, s. 189-197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying factors that affect the self-assembly of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is of utmost importance in the quest to understand the molecular mechanisms causing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ca2+ has previously been shown to accelerate both Aβ fibril nucleation and maturation, and a dysregulated Ca2+ homeostasis frequently correlates with development of AD. The mechanisms regarding Ca2+ binding as well as its effect on fibril kinetics are not fully understood. Using a polymerization assay we show that Ca2+ in a dynamic and reversible manner enhances both the elongation rate and fibrillar stability, where specifically the "dock and lock" phase mechanism is enhanced. Through NMR analysis we found that Ca2+ affects the fibrillar architecture. In addition, and unexpectedly, we found that Ca2+ does not bind the free Aβ monomer. This implies that Ca2+ binding requires an architecture adopted by assembled peptides, and consequently is mediated through intermolecular interactions between adjacent peptides. This gives a mechanistic explanation to the enhancing effect on fibril maturation and indicates structural similarities between prefibrillar structures and mature amyloid. Taken together we expose how Ca2+ levels affect the delicate equilibrium between the monomeric and assembled Aβ and how fluctuations in vivo may contribute to development and progression of the disease.
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9.
  • Chauhan, S., et al. (författare)
  • Cdk2 catalytic activity is essential for meiotic cell division in vivo
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021. ; 473, s. 2783-2798
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) control the eukaryotic cell cycle by phosphorylating serine and threonine residues in key regulatory proteins, but some Cdk family members may exert kinase-independent functions that cannot easily be assessed using gene knockout approaches. While Cdk2-deficient mice display near-normal mitotic cell proliferation due to the compensatory activities of Cdk1 and Cdk4, they are unable to undergo meiotic generation of gametes and are consequently sterile. To investigate whether Cdk2 regulates meiosis via protein phosphorylation or by alternative kinase-independent mechanisms, we generated two different knockin mouse strains in which Cdk2 point mutations ablated enzyme activity without altering protein expression levels. Mice homozygous for the mutations Cdk2(D145N/D145N) or Cdk2(T160A/T160A) expressed only 'kinase-dead' variants of Cdk2 under the control of the endogenous promoter, and despite exhibiting normal expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and complexes, both mutations rendered mice sterile. Mouse cells that expressed only 'kinase-dead' variants of Cdk2 displayed normal mitotic cell cycle progression and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that loss of Cdk2 kinase activity exerted little effect on this mode of cell division. In contrast, the reproductive organs of Cdk2 mutant mice exhibited abnormal morphology and impaired function associated with defective meiotic cell division and inability to produce gametes. Cdk2 mutant animals were therefore comparable to gene knockout mice, which completely lack the Cdk2 protein. Together, our data indicate that the essential meiotic functions of Cdk2 depend on its kinase activity, without which the generation of haploid cells is disrupted, resulting in sterility of otherwise healthy animals.
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10.
  • de Veer, Simon J., et al. (författare)
  • Engineered protease inhibitors based on sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1) provide insights into the role of sequence and conformation in Laskowski mechanism inhibition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 469:2, s. 243-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Laskowski inhibitors regulate serine proteases by an intriguing mode of action that involves deceiving the protease into synthesizing a peptide bond. Studies exploring naturally occurring Laskowski inhibitors have uncovered several structural features that convey the inhibitor's resistance to hydrolysis and exceptional binding affinity. However, in the context of Laskowski inhibitor engineering, the way that various modifications intended to fine-tune an inhibitor's potency and selectivity impact on its association and dissociation rates remains unclear. This information is important as Laskowski inhibitors are becoming increasingly used as design templates to develop new protease inhibitors for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, we used the cyclic peptide, sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1), as a model system to explore how the inhibitor's sequence and structure relate to its binding kinetics and function. Using enzyme assays, MD simulations and NMR spectroscopy to study SFTI variants with diverse sequence and backbone modifications, we show that the geometry of the binding loop mainly influences the inhibitor's potency by modulating the association rate, such that variants lacking a favourable conformation show dramatic losses in activity. Additionally, we show that the inhibitor's sequence (including both the binding loop and its scaffolding) influences its potency and selectivity by modulating both the association and the dissociation rates. These findings provide new insights into protease inhibitor function and design that we apply by engineering novel inhibitors for classical serine proteases, trypsin and chymotrypsin and two kallikrein-related peptidases (KLK5 and KLK14) that are implicated in various cancers and skin diseases.
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