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Sökning: L773:0264 6021 > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Igamberdiev, Abir U., et al. (författare)
  • Pyrophosphate as an alternative energy currency in plants
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 478:8, s. 1515-1524
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the conditions of [Mg2+] elevation that occur, in particular, under low oxygen stress and are the consequence of the decrease in [ATP] and increase in [ADP] and [AMP], pyrophosphate (PPi) can function as an alternative energy currency in plant cells. In addition to its production by various metabolic pathways, PPi can be synthesized in the combined reactions of pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (PPDK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) by so-called PK/PPDK substrate cycle, and in the reverse reaction of membrane-bound H+-pyrophosphatase, which uses the energy of electrochemical gradients generated on tonoplast and plasma membrane. The PPi can then be consumed in its active forms of MgPPi and Mg2PPi by PPi-utilizing enzymes, which require an elevated [Mg2+]. This ensures a continuous operation of glycolysis in the conditions of suppressed ATP synthesis, keeping metabolism energy efficient and less dependent on ATP.
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2.
  • Kleczkowski, Leszek A., 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Optimization of nucleotide sugar supply for polysaccharide formation via thermodynamic buffering
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 477:2, s. 341-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch) are either direct (i.e. leaf starch) or indirect products of photosynthesis, and they belong to the most abundant organic compounds in nature. Although each of these polymers is made by a specific enzymatic machinery, frequently in different cell locations, details of their synthesis share certain common features. Thus, the production of these polysaccharides is preceded by the formation of nucleotide sugars catalyzed by fully reversible reactions of various enzymes, mostly pyrophosphorylases. These 'buffering' enzymes are, generally, quite active and operate close to equilibrium. The nucleotide sugars are then used as substrates for irreversible reactions of various polysaccharide-synthesizing glycosyltransferases ('engine' enzymes), e.g. plastidial starch synthases, or plasma membrane-bound cellulose synthase and callose synthase, or ER/Golgi-located variety of glycosyltransferases forming hemicellulose and pectin backbones. Alternatively, the irreversible step might also be provided by a carrier transporting a given immediate precursor across a membrane. Here, we argue that local equilibria, established within metabolic pathways and cycles resulting in polysaccharide production, bring stability to the system via the arrangement of a flexible supply of nucleotide sugars. This metabolic system is itself under control of adenylate kinase and nucleoside-diphosphate kinase, which determine the availability of nucleotides (adenylates, uridylates, guanylates and cytidylates) and Mg2+, the latter serving as a feedback signal from the nucleotide metabolome. Under these conditions, the supply of nucleotide sugars to engine enzymes is stable and constant, and the metabolic process becomes optimized in its load and consumption, making the system steady and self-regulated.
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3.
  • Kopietz, Franziska, et al. (författare)
  • A-769662 inhibits adipocyte glucose uptake in an AMPK-independent manner
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Biochemical journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 478:3, s. 633-646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is considered a valid strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, despite the importance of adipose tissue for whole-body energy homeostasis, the effect of AMPK activation in adipocytes has only been studied to a limited extent and mainly with the AMP-mimetic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-b-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), which has limited specificity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the allosteric AMPK activators A‑769662 and 991 on glucose uptake in adipocytes. For this purpose, primary rat or human adipocytes, and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, were treated with either of the allosteric activators, or AICAR, and basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was assessed. Additionally, the effect of AMPK activators on insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa was assessed. Furthermore, primary adipocytes from ADaM site binding drug-resistant AMPKb1 S108A knock-in mice were employed to investigate specificity of the drugs for the observed effects. Our results show that insulin-stimulated adipocyte glucose uptake was significantly reduced by A‑769662 but not 991, yet neither activator had any clear effects on basal or insulin-stimulated Akt/AS160 signaling. The use of AMPKb1 S108A mutant-expressing adipocytes revealed that the observed inhibition of glucose uptake by A‑769662 is most likely AMPK-independent, a finding which is supported by the rapid inhibitory effect A-769662 exerts on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest that AMPK activation per se does not inhibit glucose uptake in adipocytes and that the effects of AICAR and A-769662 are AMPK-independent.
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4.
  • López-Marqués, Rosa L., et al. (författare)
  • The transport mechanism of P4 ATPase lipid flippases
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Biochemical journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 477:19, s. 3769-3790
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • P4 ATPase lipid flippases are ATP-driven transporters that translocate specific lipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of biological membranes, thus establishing a lipid gradient between the two leaflets that is essential for many cellular processes. While substrate specificity, subcellular and tissue-specific expression, and physiological functions have been assigned to a number of these transporters in several organisms, the mechanism of lipid transport has been a topic of intense debate in the field. The recent publication of a series of structural models based on X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM studies has provided the first glimpse into how P4 ATPases have adapted the transport mechanism used by the cation-pumping family members to accommodate a substrate that is at least an order of magnitude larger than cations.
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  • Resultat 1-4 av 4

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