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  • Becker, D., et al. (författare)
  • Engineering of a glycosidase Family 7 cellobiohydrolase to more alkaline pH optimum : the pH behaviour of Trichoderma reesei CeI7A and its E223S/A224H/L225V/T226A/D262G mutant
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 356, s. 19-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The crystal structures of Family 7 glycohydrolases suggest that a histidine residue near the acid/base catalyst could account for the higher pH optimum of the Humicola insolens endoglucanase Cel7B, than the corresponding Trichoderma reesei enzymes. Modelling studies indicated that introduction of histidine at the homologous position in T. reesei Cel7A (Ala(224)) required additional changes to accommodate the bulkier histidine side chain. X-ray crystallography of the catalytic domain of the E223S/A224H/L225V/T226A/D262G mutant reveals that major differences from the wild-type are confined to the mutations themselves, The introduced histidine residue is in plane with its counterpart in H. insolens Cel7B, but is 1.0 Angstrom (= 0.1 nm) closer to the acid/base Glu(217) residue, with a 3.1 Angstrom contact between N-2 and O'(1). The pH variation of k(cat)/K-m for 3,4-dinitrophenyl lactoside hydrolysis was accurately bell-shaped for both wildtype and mutant, with pK(1) shifting from 2.22+/-0.03 in the wild-type to 3.19+/-0.03 in the mutant, and pK(2) shifting from 5.99+/-0.02 to 6.78+/-0.02. With this poor substrate, the ionizations probably represent those of the free enzyme. The relative k(cat) for 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl lactoside showed similar behaviour. The shift in the mutant pH optimum was associated with lower k(cat)/K-m values for both lactosides and cellobiosides, and a marginally lower stability. However, k(cat) values for cellobiosides are higher for the mutant. This we attribute to reduced nonproductive binding in the +1 and +2 subsites; inhibition by cellobiose is certainly relieved in the mutant. The weaker binding of cellobiose is due to the loss of two water-mediated hydrogen bonds.
  • Kågedal, Katarina, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Sphingosine-induced apoptosis is dependent on lysosomal proteases
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 359:2, s. 335-343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We propose a new mechanism for sphingosine-induced apoptosis, involving relocation of lysosomal hydrolases to the cytosol. Owing to its lysosomotropic properties, sphingosine, which is also a detergent, especially when protonated, accumulates by proton trapping within the acidic vacuolar apparatus, where most of its action as a detergent would be exerted. When sphingosine was added in low-to-moderate concentrations to Jurkat and J774 cells, partial lysosomal rupture occurred dose-dependently, starting within a few minutes. This phenomenon preceded caspase activation, as well as changes of mitochondrial membrane potential. High sphingosine doses rapidly caused extensive lysosomal rupture and ensuing necrosis, without antecedent apoptosis or caspase activation. The sphingosine effect was prevented by pre-treatment with another, non-toxic, lysosomotropic base, ammonium chloride, at 10mM. The lysosomal protease inhibitors, pepstatin A and epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-3-methyl-butane ethyl ester ('E-64d'), inhibited markedly sphingosine-induced caspase activity to almost the same degree as the general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp-fluoromethylketone ('Z-VAD-FMK'), although they did not by themselves inhibit caspases. We conclude that cathepsin D and one or more cysteine proteases, such as cathepsins B or L, are important mediators of sphingosine-induced apoptosis, working upstream of the caspase cascade and mitochondrial membrane-potential changes.
  • Modig, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 363:Pt 3, s. 769-776
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC, aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition.
  • Woestenenk, Esmeralda A., et al. (författare)
  • The solution structure of ribosomal protein L18 from Thermus thermophilus reveals a conserved RNA-binding fold
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 363:3, s. 553-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have determined the solution structure of ribosomal protein L18 from Thermus thermophilus. L18 is a 12.5 kDa protein of the large subunit of the ribosome and binds to both 5 S and 23 S rRNA. In the uncomplexed state L18 folds to a mixed α/β globular structure with a long disordered N-terminal region. We compared our high-resolution structure with RNA-complexed L 18 from Haloarcula marismortui and T. thermophilus to examine RNA-induced as well as species-dependent structural differences. We also identified T. thermophilus S11 as a structural homologue and found that the structures of the RNA-recognition sites are conserved. Important features, for instance a bulge in the RNA-contacting β-sheet, are conserved in both proteins. We suggest that the L18 fold recognizes a specific RNA motif and that the resulting RNA-protein-recognition module is tolerant to variations in sequence.
  • Aguiló, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the human acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase gene by PPARgamma.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 427:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the cytosol of lipogenic tissue, ketone bodies are activated by AACS (acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase) and incorporated into cholesterol and fatty acids. AACS gene expression is particularly abundant in white adipose tissue, as it is induced during adipocyte differentiation. In order to elucidate the mechanism controlling the gene expression of human AACS and to clarify its physiological role, we isolated the human promoter, characterized the elements required to initiate transcription and analysed the expression of the gene in response to PPARgamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma), an inducer of adipogenesis. We show that the human AACS promoter is a PPARgamma target gene and that this nuclear receptor is recruited to the AACS promoter by direct interaction with Sp1 (stimulating protein-1).
  • Andersson, C, et al. (författare)
  • Activation and inhibition of microsomal glutathione transferase from mouse liver.
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 249:3, s. 819-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mouse liver microsomal glutathione transferase was purified in an N-ethylmaleimide-activated as well as an unactivated form. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 17 kDa and a pI of 8.8. It showed cross-reactivity with antibodies raised against rat liver microsomal glutathione transferase, but not with any of the available antisera raised against cytosolic glutathione transferases. The fully N-ethylmaleimide-activated enzyme could be further activated 1.5-fold by inclusion of 1 microM-bromosulphophthalein in the assay system. The latter effect was reversible, which was not the case for the N-ethylmaleimide activation. At 20 microM-bromosulphophthalein the activated microsomal glutathione transferase was strongly inhibited, while the unactivated form was activated 2.5-fold. Inhibitors of the microsomal glutathione transferase from mouse liver showed either about the same I50 values for the activated and the unactivated form of the enzyme, or significantly lower I50 values for the activated form compared with the unactivated form. The low I50 values and the steep slope of the activity-versus-inhibitor-concentration curves for the latter group of inhibitors tested on the activated enzyme indicate a co-operative effect involving conversion of activated enzyme into the unactivated form, as well as conventional inhibition of the enzyme.
  • Aspenström, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Rho GTPases have diverse effects on the organization of the actin filament system
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 377:Pt 2, s. 327-337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Rho GTPases are related to the Ras proto-oncogenes and consist of 22 family members. These proteins have important roles in regulating the organization of the actin filament system, and thereby the morphogenesis of vertebrate cells as well as their ability to migrate. In an effort to compare the effects of all members of the Rho GTPase family, active Rho GTPases were transfected into porcine aortic endothelial cells and the effects on the actin filament system were monitored. Cdc42, TCL (TC10-like), Rac1-Rac3 and RhoG induced the formation of lamellipodia, whereas Cdc42, Rac1 and Rac2 also induced the formation of thick bundles of actin filaments. In contrast, transfection with TC10 or Chp resulted in the formation of focal adhesion-like structures, whereas Wrch-1 induced long and thin filopodia. Transfection with RhoA, RhoB or RhoC induced the assembly of stress fibres, whereas Rnd1-Rnd3 resulted in the loss of stress fibres, but this effect was associated with the formation of actin- and ezrin-containing dorsal microvilli. Cells expressing RhoD and Rif had extremely long and flexible filopodia. None of the RhoBTB or Miro GTPases had any major influence on the organization of the actin filament system; instead, RhoBTB1 and RhoBTB2 were present in vesicular structures, and Miro-1 and Miro-2 were present in mitochondria. Collectively, the data obtained in this study to some extent confirm earlier observations, but also allow the identification of previously undetected roles of the different members of the Rho GTPases.
  • Baird, Sarah K, et al. (författare)
  • Metallothionein protects against oxidative stress-induced lysosomal destabilization
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 394:1, s. 275-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The introduction of apo-ferritin or the iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated to starch into the lysosomal compartment protects cells against oxidative stress, lysosomal rupture and ensuing apoptosis/necrosis by binding intralysosomal redox-active iron, thus preventing Fenton-type reactions and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal membranes. Because up-regulation of MTs (metallothioneins) also generates enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, including X-irradiation, and MTs were found to be capable of iron binding in an acidic and reducing lysosomal-like environment, we propose that these proteins might similarly stabilize lysosomes following autophagocytotic delivery to the lysosomal compartment. Here, we report that Zn-mediated MT up-regulation, assayed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, results in lysosomal stabilization and decreased apoptosis following oxidative stress, similar to the protection afforded by fluid-phase endocytosis of apo-ferritin or DFO. In contrast, the endocytotic uptake of an iron phosphate complex destabilized lysosomes against oxidative stress, but this was suppressed in cells with up-regulated MT. It is suggested that the resistance against oxidative stress, known to occur in MT-rich cells, may be a consequence of autophagic turnover of MT, resulting in reduced iron-catalysed intralysosomal peroxidative reactions. © 2006 Biochemical Society.
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