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  • Alim, Md Abdul, et al. (författare)
  • Increased mast cell degranulation and co-localization of mast cells with the NMDA receptor-1 during healing after Achilles tendon rupture
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - Berlin Heidelberg : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0302-766X .- 1432-0878. ; 370:3, s. 451-460
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of inflammation and the mechanism of tendon healing after rupture has historically been a matter of controversy. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of mast cells and their relation to the NMDA receptor-1 (a glutamate receptor) during healing after Achilles tendon rupture. Eight female Sprague Dawley rats had their right Achilles tendon transected. Three weeks after rupture, histological quantification of mast cell numbers and their state of degranulation was assessed by histochemistry. Co-localization of mast cell tryptase (a mast cell marker) and NMDA receptor-1 was determined by immunofluorescence. The intact left Achilles tendon was used as control. An increased number of mast cells and a higher proportion of degranulated mast cells were found in the healing Achilles tendon compared to the intact. In addition, increased co-localization of mast cell tryptase and NMDA receptor-1 was seen in the areas of myotendinous junction, mid-tendon proper and bone tendon junction of the healing versus the intact tendon. These findings introduce a possible role for mast cells in the healing phase after Achilles tendon rupture.
  • Alves, R. N., et al. (författare)
  • Structural and functional maturation of skin during metamorphosis in the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0302-766X .- 1432-0878. ; 372:3, s. 469-492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To establish if the developmental changes in the primary barrier and osmoregulatory capacity of Atlantic halibut skin are modified during metamorphosis, histological, histochemical, gene expression and electrophysiological measurements were made. The morphology of the ocular and abocular skin started to diverge during the metamorphic climax and ocular skin appeared thicker and more stratified. Neutral mucins were the main glycoproteins produced by the goblet cells in skin during metamorphosis. Moreover, the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins increased during metamorphosis and asymmetry in their abundance was observed between ocular and abocular skin. The increase in goblet cell number and their asymmetric abundance in skin was concomitant with the period that thyroid hormones (THs) increase and suggests that they may be under the control of these hormones. Several mucin transcripts were identified in metamorphosing halibut transcriptomes and Muc18 and Muc5AC were characteristic of the body skin. Na+, K+-ATPase positive (NKA) cells were observed in skin of all metamorphic stages but their number significantly decreased with the onset of metamorphosis. No asymmetry was observed between ocular and abocular skin in NKA cells. The morphological changes observed were linked to modified skin barrier function as revealed by modifications in its electrophysiological properties. However, the maturation of the skin functional characteristics preceded structural maturation and occurred at stage 8 prior to the metamorphic climax. Treatment of Atlantic halibut with the THs disrupter methimazole (MMI) affected the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins and the NKA cells. The present study reveals that the asymmetric development of the skin in Atlantic halibut is TH sensitive and is associated with metamorphosis and that this barrier's functional properties mature earlier and are independent of metamorphosis.
  • Audehm, Uwe, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns and projections of crustacean cardioactive-peptide-immunoreactive neurons of the terminal ganglion of crayfish.
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - : Springer. - 0302-766X .- 1432-0878. ; 272:3, s. 473-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Three distinct clusters of crustacean cardioactive-peptide-immunoreactive neurones occur in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the crayfish species Orconectes limosus, Astacus leptodactylus, Astacus astacus and Procambarus clarkii, as revealed by immunocytochemistry of whole-mount preparations and sections. They exhibit similar topology and projection patterns in all four studied species. An anterior ventral lateral and a posterior lateral cluster contain one small, strongly stained perikaryon and two large, less intensely stained perikarya, each showing contralateral projections. A posterior medial lateral cluster of up to six cells also contains these two types of perikarya. Whereas the small type perikarya belong to putative interneurones, the large type perikarya give rise to extensive neurohaemal plexuses in perineural sheaths of the third roots of the fifth abdominal ganglia, the connectives, the dorsal telson nerves, the ganglion itself, its roots and arteriolar supply. Thin fibres from these plexuses reach newly discovered putative neurohaemal areas around the hindgut and anus via the intestinal and the anal nerves, and directly innervate the phasic telson musculature. A comparison with earlier investigations of motoneurones and segmentation indicates that these three cell groups containing putative neurosecretory neurones may be members of at least three neuromeres in this ganglion. Crustacean cardioactive peptide released from these neurones may participate in the neurohumoral and modulatory control of different neuronal and muscle targets, thereby exceeding its previously established hindgut and heart excitatory effects.
  • Aufschnaiter, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Mitochondrial lipids in neurodegeneration
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0302-766X .- 1432-0878. ; 367:1, s. 125-140
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including proteinopathies such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, which are characterized by the deposition of aggregated proteins in the form of insoluble fibrils or plaques. The distinct molecular processes that eventually result in mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration are well studied but still not fully understood. However, defects in mitochondrial fission and fusion, mitophagy, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial bioenergetics have been linked to cellular demise. These processes are influenced by the lipid environment within mitochondrial membranes as, besides membrane structure and curvature, recruitment and activity of different proteins also largely depend on the respective lipid composition. Hence, the interaction of neurotoxic proteins with certain lipids and the modification of lipid composition in different cell compartments, in particular mitochondria, decisively impact cell death associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss the relevance of mitochondrial lipids in the pathological alterations that result in neuronal demise, focussing on proteinopathies.
  • Bjur, Dennis, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system and occurrence of up- and down-regulation in expression of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors : new aspects of importance regarding Achilles tendon tendinosis (tendinopathy)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0302-766X .- 1432-0878. ; 331:2, s. 385-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Limited information is available concerning the existence of a cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon. We have studied pain-free normal Achilles tendons and chronically painful Achilles tendinosis tendons with regard to immunohistochemical expression patterns of the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M(2)R), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). M(2)R immunoreactivity was detected in the walls of blood vessels. As evidenced via parallel staining for CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin, most M(2)R immunoreactivity was present in the endothelium. M(2)R immunoreactivity also occured in tenocytes, which regularly immunoreact for vimentin. The degree of M(2)R immunoreactivity was highly variable, tendinosis tendons that exhibit hypercellularity and hypervascularity showing the highest levels of immunostaining. Immunoreaction for ChAT and VAChT was detected in tenocytes in tendinosis specimens, particularly in aberrant cells. In situ hybridization revealed that mRNA for ChAT is present in tenocytes in tendinosis specimens. Our results suggest that autocrine/paracrine effects occur concerning the tenocytes in tendinosis. Up-regulation/down-regulation in the levels of M(2)R immunoreactivity possibly take place in tenocytes and blood vessel cells during the various stages of tendinosis. The presumed local production of acetylcholine (ACh), as evidenced by immunoreactivity for ChAT and VAChT and the detection of ChAT mRNA, appears to evolve in response to tendinosis. These observations are of importance because of the well-known vasoactive, trophic, and pain-modulating effects that ACh is known to have and do unexpectedly establish the presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the Achilles tendon.
  • Bjur, Dennis, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • The innervation pattern of the human Achilles tendon : studies of the normal and tendinosis tendon with markers for general and sensory innervation
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - Berlin / Heidelberg : Springer. - 0302-766X .- 1432-0878. ; 320:1, s. 201-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pain-free normal Achilles tendons and chronic painful Achilles tendons were examined by the use of antibodies against a general nerve marker (protein gene-product 9.5, PGP9.5), sensory markers (substance P, SP; calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP), and immunohistochemistry. In the normal tendons, immunoreactions against PGP9.5 and against SP/CGRP were encountered in the paratendinous loose connective tissue, being confined to nerve fascicles and to nerve fibers located in the vicinity of blood vessels. To some extent, these immunoreactions also occurred in the tendon tissue proper. Immunoreaction against PGP9.5 and against SP/CGRP was also observed in the tendinosis samples and included immunoreactive nerve fibers that were intimately associated with small blood vessels. In conclusion, Mechanoreceptors (sensory corpuscles) were occasionally observed, nerve-related components are present in association with blood vessels in both the normal and the tendinosis tendon.
  • Braekeveldt, Noémie, et al. (författare)
  • Patient-derived xenografts as preclinical neuroblastoma models
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - : Springer. - 0302-766X .- 1432-0878. ; 372:2, s. 233-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prognosis for children with high-risk neuroblastoma is often poor and survivors can suffer from severe side effects. Predictive preclinical models and novel therapeutic strategies for high-risk disease are therefore a clinical imperative. However, conventional cancer cell line-derived xenografts can deviate substantially from patient tumors in terms of their molecular and phenotypic features. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) recapitulate many biologically and clinically relevant features of human cancers. Importantly, PDXs can closely parallel clinical features and outcome and serve as excellent models for biomarker and preclinical drug development. Here, we review progress in and applications of neuroblastoma PDX models. Neuroblastoma orthotopic PDXs share the molecular characteristics, neuroblastoma markers, invasive properties and tumor stroma of aggressive patient tumors and retain spontaneous metastatic capacity to distant organs including bone marrow. The recent identification of genomic changes in relapsed neuroblastomas opens up opportunities to target treatment-resistant tumors in well-characterized neuroblastoma PDXs. We highlight and discuss the features and various sources of neuroblastoma PDXs, methodological considerations when establishing neuroblastoma PDXs, in vitro 3D models, current limitations of PDX models and their application to preclinical drug testing.
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