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  • Arguedas, O., et al. (författare)
  • A prospective population based study on outcome of juvenile chronic arthritis in Costa Rica
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. - 0315-162X (Print) 0315-162X (Linking) ; 29:1, s. 174-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study the disease process and outcome in an unselected group of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). METHODS: From a population based study in San Jose, Costa Rica, 47 patients with JCA with disease onset from 1993 through 1995 were investigated after median duration of 4.1 yrs (range 2.9-4.9) (incidence group). Another 49 children with disease onset prior to 1993 and younger than 16 years of age on December 31, 1995 (cross sectional group) were also followed. RESULTS: In the incidence group, 4/47 children changed subtype during the course of the disease. All did so within 2 years from disease onset, and the same observation was made in the cross sectional group. Uveitis was described at onset in a single case, and no child developed uveitis later. In patients from the incidence group in the process of being transferred to adult rheumatology clinics, 48% were still taking medication. Patients who had involvement of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints at onset had an increased risk of being active or stable at followup (RR 12.3, 95% CI 1.4-108.3). A higher chance of no continuing disease activity at followup was observed in children with oligoarticular disease than in the other subtypes (RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.9). CONCLUSION: Uveitis associated with antinuclear antibody positive JCA and psoriatic arthritis in Costa Rican children is uncommon, and the risk of developing uveitis remains low during the course of the disease. Involvement of PIP joints predicts an increased risk of continuing disease. The course of JCA in Costa Rican children is not milder than in Caucasian populations, since 48% of the patients showed persistent disease activity at the transition to adult care.
  • Arguedas, O., et al. (författare)
  • Development of a Costa Rican version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. - 0315-162X (Print) 0315-162X (Linking) ; 24:11, s. 2233-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To validate a Spanish language version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) for use in Costa Rica and to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and cross cultural equivalency of this version. METHODS: The original questionnaire, translated without modification into Spanish, was administered to 12 children, all above 10 years of age, with the diagnosis of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) and to their parents. There were several problems in comprehension, and self-administration with this version was not possible. For this reason a teacher and a psychologist were consulted to create a modified Costa Rican version. We administered this 2nd version to 46 children with JCA and 62 of their parents. RESULTS: The modified Costa Rican HAQ (CR-CHAQ) was self-administered by 93.5% of the patients and 84% of the parents. The median time to complete the questionnaire was 12 min for the children, 10 min for the parents. The main difficulty in comprehension was the pain score for both groups. Test-retest (Spearman R = 0.73) and interobserver (Spearman R = 0.70) reliability were good. Validity of the instrument was confirmed by the high correlation between the disability and discomfort scores and conventional clinical variables. There was satisfactory correlation between the disability score and conventional clinical variables. Discriminant validity was confirmed by the capacity of the CR-CHAQ to evaluate patients as being in different categories of disease activity. CONCLUSION: After modifications, the CR-CHAQ achieved cross cultural equivalency.
  • Arguedas, O., et al. (författare)
  • Juvenile chronic arthritis in urban San Jose, Costa Rica : a 2 year prospective study
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. - 0315-162X (Print) 0315-162X (Linking) ; 25:9, s. 1844-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To find the incidence and prevalence of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) in the urban area of San Jose, Costa Rica. METHODS: During the year preceding our 2 year prospective, population based study, we conducted an educational program on JCA. The physicians caring for children < 16 years of age from all centers in the study area followed the program. They were asked to refer all cases of possible JCA according to EULAR criteria. The children were all evaluated at the National Children's Hospital. RESULTS: Of 189 children referred, 48 fulfilled EULAR criteria for JCA. The 2 year incidence rate for JCA was 13.7 per 100,000 children < 16 years old. This corresponds to an annual incidence per 100,000 children of 6.8 (95% CI 4.1-9.6). The incidence rate for pauciarticular onset JCA was 3.9 per 100,000. At the prevalence date, 122 cases of JCA were recorded, corresponding to a prevalence of 34.9 per 100,000 children < 16 years. When patients in remission were excluded, the prevalence was 31.4 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.5-37.2). The pauciarticular onset form was the most common, 71% of all prevalence cases. The highest incidence and prevalence were noted for pauciarticular girls with late onset JCA. No incidence peak was found in preschool age. The girl-to-boy ratio was 1.5/1. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were positive in only 7 cases (6.3%). IgM rheumatoid factor was found in 13 children (10.6%). Chronic iritis was observed in 4 cases, all of them ANA negative and older than 7 years of age at onset of arthritis. CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence observed were lower than those reported in other population based studies, but within the confidence intervals of their data. The incidence rate for pauciarticular JCA was significantly lower than that reported in other comparable studies. ANA positive pauciarticular preschool girls and associated uveitis were rarely encountered.
  • Berntson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Construct validity of ILAR and EULAR criteria in juvenile idiopathic arthritis : a population based incidence study from the Nordic countries. International League of Associations for Rheumatology. European League Against Rheumatism
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. - 0315-162X (Print) 0315-162X (Linking) ; 28:12, s. 2737-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: New classification criteria (ILAR) have been proposed for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). They are more descriptive than those formerly used [American College of Rheumatology (ACR), European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)], but require validation against classifications already in use. We validated the ILAR criteria in relation to the EULAR criteria in a prospective, incidence, and population based setting, and analyzed their feasibility. METHODS: Construct validity of ILAR and EULAR classification criteria refers to how closely the 2 instruments are related and how each of them operates in classifying subgroups/categories. Twenty doctors in 5 Nordic countries collected data from the incidence cases within their catchment areas during an 18 month period beginning July 1, 1997. Clinical and serological data from the first year of disease were collected. RESULTS: A total of 322 patients were included. Classification according to the ILAR criteria was possible in 321 patients; 290 patients had a disease duration > or = 3 months and were classified according to the EULAR criteria. One child could only be classified according to the EULAR criteria. Thus, 31/322 (9.6%) children were classified according to the ILAR criteria only. Forty-eight of 321 (15%) patients did not fit into any category and 6% (20/321) fulfilled criteria for2 categories. In the ILAR classification 5 out of 7 categories/subgroups have 2 to 5 specified exclusion criteria that highly discriminate the definition of each patient. In our study the exclusion criteria were fulfilled to only a small extent. CONCLUSION: The EULAR and ILAR criteria differ concerning the operational definitions of the subvariables involved, which complicates their comparison. By using ILAR rather than EULAR criteria the number of cases with juvenile arthritis increased by 10%, considering the first half-year after onset. The validity of the ILAR criteria is low since they often exclude patients from subgroup classification and the possibility of having more than one diagnosis is not negligible. The specified exclusion criteria for some of the subgroups are difficult to fulfill in clinical work and variables involved could be questioned with regard to their consistency.
  • Berntson, L., et al. (författare)
  • HLA-B27 predicts a more extended disease with increasing age at onset in boys with juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Rheumatology. - 0263-7103 .- 1460-2172 .- 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. - 0315-162X (Print) 0315-162X (Linking) ; 35:10, s. 2055-2061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous condition with very few clinical and laboratory signs that can help predict the course and severity of the disease in the individual patient. The cell-surface antigen HLA-B27 is well known to be associated with spondyloarthropathies, reactive arthritis, and enthesitis. HLA-B27 plays an important role in the classification of JIA, since evidence of sacroiliitis most often evolves after years of arthritis in other joints. We investigated the associations of HLA-B27 and the clinical manifestations of JIA using a method as close to a population-based study as possible.METHODS: We studied an incidence-based cohort of 305 patients collected prospectively in 3 Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark). Clinical and serological data of the first 3 years of the disease were collected.RESULTS: HLA-B27 was found to be positive in 25.5% of the patients, and we found a higher proportion of HLA-B27-positive boys with older age at disease onset (p=0.034). Regression analysis showed a correlation of 0.7 in the HLA-B27-positive boys, pointing to a higher risk of more joint involvement with older age at disease onset. By Fisher's exact test, involvement of small joints in the lower extremities was associated with HLA-B27 in boys (p=0.011), but not in girls (p=0.687). HLA-B27 was associated with inflammatory back pain in both sexes (p=0.041 in boys, p=0.042 in girls), but with enthesitis only in boys (p<0.001 in boys, p=0.708 in girls).CONCLUSION: HLA-B27 is of increasing importance with older age at disease onset in boys with JIA, predicting more active joints within the first 3 years of disease, and also involving small joints in the lower extremity to a greater degree than in HLA-B27-negative boys. During the first 3 years of disease the occurrence of HLA-B27 is associated with inflammatory back pain in both sexes, but with enthesitis only in boys. Our data present new challenges for the ILAR classification of JIA.
  • Berntson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in the Nordic countries : A population based study with special reference to the validity of the ILAR and EULAR criteria
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. - 0315-162X (Print) 0315-162X (Linking) ; 30:10, s. 2275-2282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To find the incidence of juvenile arthritis according to the ILAR and EULAR criteria within defined areas in the Nordic countries, and to study the validity of the ILAR and EULAR criteria from this perspective. METHOD: A longitudinal, prospective, population based study with patients enrolled according to the ILAR and EULAR criteria. Twenty doctors in Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland collected data from the incidence cases within their catchment areas over a period of 1.5 years, beginning July 1, 1997. Clinical and serological data from the first year of the disease were collected. RESULTS: In the whole group of 315 patients, the incidence rate was 15 per 100,000 children/year (95% CI 13-17) according to the ILAR criteria, varying from 7 (1-13) in Iceland, 19 (7-31) and 23 (10-36) from 2 different regions in Norway, and 9 (5-12) and 16 (9-23) from 2 different areas in Denmark, to 15 (12-18) in Sweden and 21/100,000/year (15-26) in the Helsinki region in Finland. An early peak in distribution for age of onset was found in girls but not in boys. The number of antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive children in the whole group, made up of children who had undergone at least one analyzed ANA test, was 123/315 (39%). Girls were ANA positive in 83/197 (42%) and boys in 40/118 (34%). Uveitis developed in 27/315 (8.6%) children during the first 6 months of the disease. CONCLUSION: Incidence rates of juvenile arthritis for areas within the Nordic countries were in accord with previous data. The ILAR criteria present slightly higher incidence rates, with a shorter disease duration for inclusion, compared to the EULAR criteria. Patients in one subgroup in either of the criteria sets do not necessarily belong to the expected subgroup in the other set of criteria; e.g., for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (EULAR) and enthesitis related arthritis (ILAR). Our epidemiological findings are a reminder to be aware of possible new subgroups in children with juvenile arthritis.
  • Berntson, L., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of heredity for psoriasis on the ILAR classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. - 0315-162X (Print) 0315-162X (Linking) ; 29:11, s. 2454-2458
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how heredity for psoriasis influences classification according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR). Heredity for psoriasis is currently both an exclusion and an inclusion criterion for different types of childhood arthritis according to ILAR classification criteria. METHODS: Twenty physicians in 5 Nordic countries prospectively collected data from the incident cases in their catchment areas over an 18 month period beginning July 1, 1997. Clinical and serological data from the first year of disease were collected. RESULTS: Of the 321 patients included who could be classified according to ILAR criteria for childhood arthritis, 50 (15.6%) patients were excluded from 55 classification events and fulfilled criteria for "other arthritis 1" i.e., did not fulfill criteria for any of the other classification categories, primarily because of heredity for psoriasis. If psoriasis in second degree relatives was disregarded as an exclusion criterion, only 8.7% of the patients remained in the "other arthritis 1" subgroup. For 20.6% of the whole group, heredity for psoriasis in a first or second degree relative (or both) and its distribution among arthritis subgroups did not differ except for juvenile psoriatic arthritis. CONCLUSION: We suggest that second degree heredity for psoriasis be withdrawn as an exclusion criterion from the ILAR criteria.
  • Bertilsson, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Disease course, outcome, and predictors of outcome in a population-based juvenile chronic arthritis cohort followed for 17 years
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. - 0315-162X (Print) 0315-162X (Linking) ; 40:5, s. 715-724
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate disease course, outcome, and predictors of outcome in an unselected population-based cohort of individuals diagnosed with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) followed for 17 years. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 132 incidence JCA cases identified 1984-1986 according to EULAR criteria. At 5-year followup, 129 individuals underwent joint assessment, laboratory measurements, radiographic examination, and medication and functional assessment. At 17-year followup, 86 were examined with joint assessment, laboratory measurements, medication assessment, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Keitel functional test (KFT), and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). RESULTS: At 17-year followup, 40% were in remission, 44% changed subgroups, median HAQ score was 0.0 (range 0.0-1.5), and median KFT was 100 (range 54-100). SF-36 scores were significantly lower compared to a reference group. Thirty-nine percent of those in remission at 5-year followup were not in remission at 17-year followup. In multivariate analyses of variables from the 17-year followup: remission was predicted by remission at 5-year followup (OR 4.8); HAQ > 0 by rheumatoid factor (RF)-positivity at 5-year followup (OR 3.6); KFT < 100 by nonremission (OR 11.3); and RF-positivity (OR 5.6) at 5-year followup; and the SF-36 physical component summary score above average of the reference group by remission at 5-year followup (OR 5.8). CONCLUSION: This longterm study of 86 individuals with JCA showed large variability of disease courses and of impaired health-related quality of life. Sixty percent were not in remission at 17-year followup. Longterm outcome was best predicted by and associated with characteristics at 5-year followup rather than those at onset.
  • Alenius, Gerd-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of 6 genetic loci for disease susceptibility in psoriatic arthritis.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: The Journal of rheumatology. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. ; 31:11, s. 2230-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of several autoimmune disease susceptibility loci in a population of patients with psoriasis and defined joint disease from northern Sweden. METHOD: One hundred twenty patients with psoriasis and defined joint disease were examined clinically, radiologically, and with laboratory-based analyses. Disease classification was based on peripheral and/or axial engagement. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus, 1q21 (PSORS4), 3q21 (PSORS5), 8q24, 16q21, and the CTLA4 gene were analyzed using a total of 38 microsatellite markers and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Ninety-four controls with the same ethnic background as the patients were randomly selected from the same region of Sweden. RESULTS: An association was found with one of the markers in the TNFB locus within the HLA region (p = 0.012, pc = 0.024). Three markers at the PSORS4 locus on chromosome 1q21 and 2 markers at the 8q24 locus showed nominal p values of < 0.05. After applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple analyses these markers did not reach significance. No other marker showed significant association. In a subgroup of the patients, possible linkage disequilibrium between the TNFB123 and HLA-B antigens, B17, B27, B37, B44, and B62 was analyzed. A significant linkage (p = 0.0001) was found. CONCLUSION: We identified an association between psoriatic arthritis and one of the microsatellite markers within the TNFB locus at the HLA region on chromosome 6. Linkage disequilibrium between TNFB123 and certain HLA-B antigens was found.
  • Andersson, Maria L. E., et al. (författare)
  • Chronic widespread pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the relation between pain and disease activity measures over the first 5 years
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - Toronto, ON : Journal of Rheumatology Publishing. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. ; 40:12, s. 1977-1985
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of chronic widespread pain (ChWP), chronic regional pain (ChRP), and fibromyalgia in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) followed for 5 years after inclusion, and to study the effect of pain on measures of disease activity and function.METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 1910 patients participating in the Better Anti-Rheumatic Pharmacotherapy study. The responders (73%) were divided into 3 groups according to the reported pain duration and distribution - patients having no chronic pain (NChP), ChWP, and ChRP. Outcome measures were the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and C-reactive protein (CRP).RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of respondents reported ChWP, 46% ChRP, and 20% NChP. Patients reporting ChWP were more often women and had more pain and tender joints at inclusion. From 6 months to 5 years of followup, mean DAS28, visual analog scale (VAS) pain, VAS global health, and HAQ were significantly higher in the ChWP group than in the other groups. However, all groups showed a similar pattern in swollen joint count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and CRP. From 12 months the ChWP group was treated with prednisolone to a greater extent than the ChRP group, and it had a rate of treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs similar to that of the ChRP group.CONCLUSION: ChWP is a common feature in RA, more associated with high values for variables related to pain such as the DAS28 and HAQ than to indicators of ongoing inflammation such as swollen joint count, ESR, and CRP. Patients with ChWP should be identified so that adequate treatment also of the noninflammatory pain may be instituted.
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