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  • Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing identifies complex contributions to genetic risk by variants in genes causing monogenic systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 138:2, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, OMIM 152700) is a systemic autoimmune disease with a complex etiology. The mode of inheritance of the genetic risk beyond familial SLE cases is currently unknown. Additionally, the contribution of heterozygous variants in genes known to cause monogenic SLE is not fully understood. Whole-genome sequencing of DNA samples from 71 Swedish patients with SLE and their healthy biological parents was performed to investigate the general genetic risk of SLE using known SLE GWAS risk loci identified using the ImmunoChip, variants in genes associated to monogenic SLE, and the mode of inheritance of SLE risk alleles in these families. A random forest model for predicting genetic risk for SLE showed that the SLE risk variants were mainly inherited from one of the parents. In the 71 patients, we detected a significant enrichment of ultra-rare (≤ 0.1%) missense and nonsense mutations in 22 genes known to cause monogenic forms of SLE. We identified one previously reported homozygous nonsense mutation in the C1QC (Complement C1q C Chain) gene, which explains the immunodeficiency and severe SLE phenotype of that patient. We also identified seven ultra-rare, coding heterozygous variants in five genes (C1S, DNASE1L3, DNASE1, IFIH1, and RNASEH2A) involved in monogenic SLE. Our findings indicate a complex contribution to the overall genetic risk of SLE by rare variants in genes associated with monogenic forms of SLE. The rare variants were inherited from the other parent than the one who passed on the more common risk variants leading to an increased genetic burden for SLE in the child. Higher frequency SLE risk variants are mostly passed from one of the parents to the offspring affected with SLE. In contrast, the other parent, in seven cases, contributed heterozygous rare variants in genes associated with monogenic forms of SLE, suggesting a larger impact of rare variants in SLE than hitherto reported.
  • Almqvist, E, et al. (författare)
  • Geographical distribution of haplotypes in Swedish families with Huntington's disease.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 94:2, s. 124-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study was planned to determine the number of origins of the mutation underlying Huntington's disease (HD) in Sweden. Haplotypes were constructed for 23 different HD families, using six different polymorphisms [(CCG)n, GT70, 674, BS1, E2 and 4.2], including two within the gene. In addition, extensive genealogical investigations were performed, and the geographical origin of the haplotypes was studied. Ten different haplotypes were observed suggesting multiple origins for the HD mutation in Sweden. Analysis of the two polymorphic markers within the HD gene (the CCG repeat and GT70) indicates that there are at least three origins for the HD mutation in Sweden. One of these haplotypes (7/A) accounts for 89% of the families, suggesting that the majority of the Swedish HD families are related through a single HD mutation of ancient origin. Furthermore, three of the families that were previously considered to be unrelated could be traced to a common ancestor in the 15th century, a finding that is consistent with this hypothesis.
  • Arnell, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) : evidence for genetic heterogeneity by exclusion of linkage to chromosome 18q21-q22
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 100:3-4, s. 378-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is the second most common form of familial intrahepatic cholestasis. The genes for PFIC and for a milder form of the disease, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC), were recently mapped to a 19-cM region on chromosome 18q21-q22. The results suggest that PFIC and BRIC are allelic diseases. We have studied 11 Swedish patients from eight families with clinical and biochemical features consistent with PFIC. The families were genotyped for markers D18S69, D18S64, D18S55 and D18S68, spanning the PFIC candidate region. Unexpectedly, the segregation of haplotypes excluded the entire region in three families, and no indications for shared haplotypes were found in the patients of the six remaining families. A four-point linkage analysis of all families excluded linkage from D18S69 to D18S55 (Zmax < -5). Thus, our data strongly suggest the presence of a second, yet unknown, locus for PFIC. The results indicate that great care should be taken when using 18q markers for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for the disease.
  • Balciuniene, Jorune, et al. (författare)
  • Alpha-tectorin involvement in hearing disabilities : One gene-two phenotypes
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 105:3, s. 211-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human alpha-tectorin (TECTA) gene has recently been cloned and proposed to be involved in autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) in two families linked to the DFNA12 locus. We have studied a Swedish pedigree with autosomal dominant NSHI with possible digenic inheritance of the disease, involving locus DFNA12 in chromosome 11 and locus DFNA2 in chromosome 1. Mutation analysis of the TECTA gene in this family has identified eight nucleotide substitutions indicating that TECTA is highly polymorphic. One of the changes results in a cysteine to serine (C 1057 S) mutation, in the zonadhesin domain of TECTA; this segregates with the disease haplotype on chromosome 11 and is not present in a control population. The mutation results in the replacement of a cysteine in one of the repeats of the zonadhesin/Von Willebrand domain of the protein and might cause a change in the crosslinking of the polypeptide. These findings add support to the involvement of TECTA in hearing disabilities. However, the three families carrying different TECTA mutations also show phenotypic differences: the hearing loss ranges from prelingual to progressive with late onset. The explanation for the different phenotypes and some clues regarding the functions of TECTA may lie in the localization of the mutations in the different modules of the protein. Another possibility is that the phenotype in the Swedish family is the result of two defective genes.
  • Baskin, Berivan, et al. (författare)
  • High frequency of copy number variations (CNVs) in the chromosome 11p15 region in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 133:3, s. 321-330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an overgrowth and tumor predisposition syndrome is clinically heterogeneous. Its variable presentation makes molecular diagnosis particularly important for appropriate counseling of patients with respect to embyronal tumor risk and recurrence risk. BWS is characterized by macrosomia, omphalocele, and macroglossia. Additional clinical features can include hemihyperplasia, embryonal tumors, umbilical hernia, and ear anomalies. BWS is etiologically heterogeneous arising from dysregulation of one or both of the chromosome 11p15.5 imprinting centers (IC) and/or imprinted growth regulatory genes on chromosome 11p15.5. Most BWS cases are sporadic and result from loss of maternal methylation at imprinting center 2 (IC2), gain of maternal methylation at imprinting center 1 (IC1) or paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). Heritable forms of BWS (15%) have been attributed mainly to mutations in the growth suppressor gene CDKN1C, but have also infrequently been identified in patients with copy number variations (CNVs) in the chromosome 11p15.5 region. Four hundred and thirty-four unrelated BWS patients referred to the molecular diagnostic laboratory were tested by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). Molecular alterations were detected in 167 patients, where 103 (62%) showed loss of methylation at IC2, 23 (14%) had gain of methylation at IC1, and 41 (25%) showed changes at both ICs usually associated with paternal UPD. In each of the three groups, we identified patients in whom the abnormalities in the chromosome 11p15.5 region were due to CNVs. Surprisingly, 14 patients (9%) demonstrated either deletions or duplications of the BWS critical region that were confirmed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array analysis. The majority of these CNVs were associated with a methylation change at IC1. Our results suggest that CNVs in the 11p15.5 region contribute significantly to the etiology of BWS. We highlight the importance of performing deletion/duplication testing in addition to methylation analysis in the molecular investigation of BWS in order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of this disorder, and to provide accurate genetic counselling.
  • Baskin, Berivan, et al. (författare)
  • TMEM43 mutations associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in non-Newfoundland populations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 132:11, s. 1245-1252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a myocardial disease characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of right ventricular free wall myocardium and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. A missense mutation, c.1073C>T (p.S358L) in the transmembrane protein 43 (TMEM43) gene, has been genetically identified to cause ARVC type 5 in a founder population from Newfoundland. It is unclear whether this mutation occurs in other populations outside of this founder population or if other variants of TMEM43 are associated with ARVC disease. We sought to identify non-Newfoundland individuals with TMEM43 variants among patient samples sent for genetic assessment for possible ARVC. Of 195 unrelated individuals with suspected ARVC, mutation of desmosomal proteins was seen in 28 and the p.S358L TMEM43 mutation in six. We identified a de novo p.S358L mutation in a non-Newfoundland patient and five separate rare TMEM43 (four novel) sequence variants in non-Newfoundland patients, each occurring in an evolutionarily conserved amino acid. TMEM43 mutations occur outside of the founder population of the island of Newfoundland where it was originally described. TMEM43 sequencing should be incorporated into clinical genetic testing for ARVC patients.
  • Bien, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 138:4, s. 307-326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n=169) and whole blood (n=922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P=2.2x10(-4), replication P=0.01), and PYGL (discovery P=2.3x10(-4), replication P=6.7x10(-4)). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P<0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.
  • Cavalli, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • Allele-specific transcription factor binding to common and rare variants associated with disease and gene expression
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 135:5, s. 485-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of disease-associated SNPs, but in few cases the functional variant and the gene it controls have been identified. To systematically identify candidate regulatory variants, we sequenced ENCODE cell lines and used public ChIP-seq data to look for transcription factors binding preferentially to one allele. We found 9962 candidate regulatory SNPs, of which 16 % were rare and showed evidence of larger functional effect than common ones. Functionally rare variants may explain divergent GWAS results between populations and are candidates for a partial explanation of the missing heritability. The majority of allele-specific variants (96 %) were specific to a cell type. Furthermore, by examining GWAS loci we found >400 allele-specific candidate SNPs, 141 of which were highly relevant in our cell types. Functionally validated SNPs support identification of an SNP in SYNGR1 which may expose to the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and primary biliary cirrhosis, as well as an SNP in the last intron of COG6 exposing to the risk of psoriasis. We propose that by repeating the ChIP-seq experiments of 20 selected transcription factors in three to ten people, the most common polymorphisms can be interrogated for allele-specific binding. Our strategy may help to remove the current bottleneck in functional annotation of the genome.
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