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1.
  • Piccini, P, et al. (författare)
  • Delayed recovery of movement-related cortical function in Parkinson's disease after striatal dopaminergic grafts
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1531-8249 .- 0364-5134. ; 48:5, s. 689-695
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurones aims to repair the selective loss of nigrostriatal projections and the consequent dysfunction of striatocortical circuitries in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we have studied the effects of bilateral human embryonic dopaminergic grafts on the movement-related activation of frontal cortical areas in 4 PD patients using H2 15O positron emission tomography and a joystick movement task. At 6.5 months after transplantation, mean striatal dopamine storage capacity as measured by 18F-dopa positron emission tomography was already significantly elevated in these patients. This was associated with a modest clinical improvement on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, whereas the impaired cortical activation was unchanged. At 18 months after surgery, there was further significant clinical improvement in the absence of any additional increase in striatal 18F-dopa uptake. Rostral supplementary motor and dorsal prefrontal cortical activation during performance of joystick movements had significantly improved, however. Our data suggest that the function of the graft goes beyond that of a simple dopamine delivery system and that functional integration of the grafted neurones within the host brain is necessary to produce substantial clinical recovery in PD.
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2.
  • Autti, Taina, et al. (författare)
  • Extensive cerebral white matter abnormality without clinical symptoms : a new hereditary condition?
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 45:6, s. 801-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 30-year-old father and his 2 sons with slight hyperkinesia and mildly dysmorphic features and their close relatives were examined clinically and with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurophysiological and biochemical examinations were normal; however, brain MRI of the father and sons revealed extensive cerebral white matter changes. No radiological progression could be detected at a 13-year follow-up examination of the father, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the father at the age of 30 years was normal. MRI findings in the relatives were normal, suggesting an autosomal dominant syndrome due to a new mutation in the father.
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3.
  • Cossee, Mireille, et al. (författare)
  • Friedreich's ataxia: point mutations and clinical presentation of compound heterozygotes
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 45:2, s. 200-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Friedreich's ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia. Ninety-six percent of patients are homozygous for GAA trinucleotide repeat expansions in the first intron of the frataxin gene. The remaining cases are compound heterozygotes for a GAA expansion and a frataxin point mutation. We report here the identification of 10 novel frataxin point mutations, and the detection of a previously described mutation (G130V) in two additional families. Most truncating mutations were in exon 1. All missense mutations were in the last three exons coding for the mature frataxin protein. The clinical features of 25 patients with identified frataxin point mutations were compared with those of 196 patients homozygous for the GAA expansion. A similar phenotype resulted from truncating mutations and from missense mutations in the carboxy-terminal half of mature frataxin, suggesting that they cause a comparable loss of function. In contrast, the only two missense mutations located in the amino-terminal half of mature frataxin (D122Y and G130V) cause an atypical and milder clinical presentation (early-onset spastic gait with slow disease progression, absence of dysarthria, retained or brisk tendon reflexes, and mild or no cerebellar ataxia), suggesting that they only partially affect frataxin function. The incidence of optic disk pallor was higher in compound heterozygotes than in expansion homozygotes, which might correlate with a very low residual level of normal frataxin produced from the expanded allele.
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4.
  • Alping, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk for Fingolimod, Natalizumab, and Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : Wiley. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 87:5, s. 688-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association. Objective: Novel, highly effective disease-modifying therapies have revolutionized multiple sclerosis (MS) care. However, evidence from large comparative studies on important safety outcomes, such as cancer, is still lacking. Methods: In this nationwide register-based cohort study, we linked data from the Swedish MS register to the Swedish Cancer Register and other national health care and census registers. We included 4,187 first-ever initiations of rituximab, 1,620 of fingolimod, and 1,670 of natalizumab in 6,136 MS patients matched for age, sex, and location to 37,801 non-MS general population subjects. Primary outcome was time to first invasive cancer. Results: We identified 78 invasive cancers among treated patients: rituximab 33 (incidence rate [IR] per 10,000 person-years = 34.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7–48.3), fingolimod 28 (IR = 44.0, 95% CI = 29.2–63.5), and natalizumab 17 (IR = 26.0, 95% CI = 15.1–41.6). The general population IR was 31.0 (95% CI = 27.8–34.4). Adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no difference in risk of invasive cancer between rituximab, natalizumab, and the general population but a possibly higher risk with fingolimod compared to the general population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.98–2.38) and rituximab (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00–2.84). Interpretation: In this first large comparative study of 3 highly effective MS disease-modifying therapies, no increased risk of invasive cancer was seen with rituximab and natalizumab, compared to the general population. However, there was a borderline-significant increased risk with fingolimod, compared to both the general population and rituximab. It was not possible to attribute this increased risk to any specific type of cancer, and further studies are warranted to validate these findings. ANN NEUROL 2020.
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5.
  • Alping, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk for Fingolimod, Natalizumab, and Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 87:5, s. 688-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Novel, highly effective disease-modifying therapies have revolutionized multiple sclerosis (MS) care. However, evidence from large comparative studies on important safety outcomes, such as cancer, is still lacking.METHODS: In this nationwide register-based cohort study, we linked data from the Swedish MS register to the Swedish Cancer Register and other national health care and census registers. We included 4,187 first-ever initiations of rituximab, 1,620 of fingolimod, and 1,670 of natalizumab in 6,136 MS patients matched for age, sex, and location to 37,801 non-MS general population subjects. Primary outcome was time to first invasive cancer.RESULTS: We identified 78 invasive cancers among treated patients: rituximab 33 (incidence rate [IR] per 10,000 person-years = 34.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7-48.3), fingolimod 28 (IR = 44.0, 95% CI = 29.2-63.5), and natalizumab 17 (IR = 26.0, 95% CI = 15.1-41.6). The general population IR was 31.0 (95% CI = 27.8-34.4). Adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no difference in risk of invasive cancer between rituximab, natalizumab, and the general population but a possibly higher risk with fingolimod compared to the general population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.98-2.38) and rituximab (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00-2.84).INTERPRETATION: In this first large comparative study of 3 highly effective MS disease-modifying therapies, no increased risk of invasive cancer was seen with rituximab and natalizumab, compared to the general population. However, there was a borderline-significant increased risk with fingolimod, compared to both the general population and rituximab. It was not possible to attribute this increased risk to any specific type of cancer, and further studies are warranted to validate these findings.
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6.
  • Alping, P., et al. (författare)
  • Rituximab versus Fingolimod after Natalizumab in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 79:6, s. 950-958
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Many JC virus antibody-positive relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients who are stable on natalizumab switch to other therapies to avoid progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Methods: We compared outcomes for all RRMS patients switching from natalizumab due to JC virus antibody positivity at 3 Swedish multiple sclerosis centers with different preferential use of rituximab and fingolimod (Stockholm, n = 156, fingolimod 51%; Gothenburg, n = 64, fingolimod 88%; Umea, n = 36, fingolimod 19%), yielding a total cohort of N = 256 (fingolimod 55%). Results: Within 1.5 years of cessation of natalizumab, 1.8% (rituximab) and 17.6% (fingolimod) of patients experienced a clinical relapse (hazard ratio for rituximab = 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02-0.43). The hazard ratio (favoring rituximab) for adverse events (5.3% vs 21.1%) and treatment discontinuation (1.8% vs 28.2%) were 0.25 (95% CI = 0.10-0.59) and 0.07 (95% CI = 0.02-0.30), respectively. Furthermore, contrast-enhancing lesions were found in 1.4% (rituximab) versus 24.2% (fingolimod) of magnetic resonance imaging examinations (odds ratio = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.00-0.22). Differences remained when adjusting for possible confounders (age, sex, disability status, time on natalizumab, washout time, follow-up time, and study center). Interpretation: Our findings suggest an improved effectiveness and tolerability of rituximab compared with fingolimod in stable RRMS patients who switch from natalizumab due to JC virus antibody positivity. Although residual confounding factors cannot be ruled out, the shared reason for switching from natalizumab and the preferential use of either rituximab or fingolimod in 2 of the centers mitigates these concerns.
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7.
  • Benatar, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Neurofilament light : a candidate biomarker of presymptomatic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and phenoconversion
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 84:1, s. 130-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To evaluate neurofilament light (NfL) as a biomarker of the presymptomatic phase of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).Methods: The study population includes 84 individuals at risk for developing ALS, 34 controls, 17 ALS patients, and 10 phenoconverters (at-risk individuals observed both before and after the emergence of clinically manifest disease). At-risk individuals are enrolled through Pre-Symptomatic Familial ALS (Pre-fALS), a longitudinal natural history and biomarker study of individuals who are carriers of any ALS-associated gene mutation (in SOD1, C9orf72, TARDBP, FUS, VCP, etc), but who, at the time of enrollment, demonstrated no clinical symptoms or signs (including electromyographic evidence) of manifest disease. NfL in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were quantified using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.Results: Serum and CSF NfL are substantially higher in ALS patients compared to controls and at-risk individuals and remain relatively stable over time. Among phenoconverters, however, NfL levels were elevated (ie, above the range observed in controls) as far back as approximate to 12 months preceding the emergence of the earliest clinical symptoms or signs of disease.Interpretation: Serum (and CSF) NfL are informative biomarkers of presymptomatic ALS, providing a new tool to quantify presymptomatic disease progression and to potentially predict the timing of clinical phenoconversion. As such, quantification of NfL may aid the design and implementation of early therapeutic intervention for affected individuals and/or disease prevention trials for individuals at short-term risk of developing ALS. 
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8.
  • Dahlqvist, Julia R., et al. (författare)
  • MRI in Neuromuscular Diseases: An Emerging Diagnostic Tool and Biomarker for Prognosis and Efficacy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : WILEY. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 88:4, s. 669-681
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is an unmet need to identify biomarkers sensitive to change in rare, slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of muscle may offer this opportunity, as it is noninvasive and can be carried out almost independent of patient cooperation and disease severity. Muscle fat content correlates with muscle function in neuromuscular diseases, and changes in fat content precede changes in function, which suggests that muscle MRI is a strong biomarker candidate to predict prognosis and treatment efficacy. In this paper, we review the evidence suggesting that muscle MRI may be an important biomarker for diagnosis and to monitor change in disease severity. ANN NEUROL 2020
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9.
  • Danielson, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Neuroinflammatory markers associate with cognitive decline after major surgery: Findings of an explorative study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 87:3, s. 370-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Long-term cognitive decline is an adverse outcome after major surgery associated with increased risk for mortality and morbidity. We studied the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum biochemical inflammatory response to a standardized orthopedic surgical procedure and the possible association with long-term changes in cognitive function. We hypothesized that the CSF inflammatory response pattern after surgery would differ in patients having long-term cognitive decline defined as a composite cognitive z score of >= 1.0 compared to patients without long-term cognitive decline at 3 months postsurgery. Methods Serum and CSF biomarkers of inflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured preoperatively and up to 48 hours postoperatively, and cognitive function was assessed preoperatively and at 2 to 5 days and 3 months postoperatively. Results Surgery was associated with a pronounced increase in inflammatory biomarkers in both CSF and blood throughout the 48-hour study period. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on 52 inflammatory biomarkers. The 2 first PC (PC1 and PC2) construct outcome variables on CSF biomarkers were significantly associated with long-term cognitive decline at 3 months, but none of the PC construct serum variables showed a significant association with long-term cognitive decline at 3 months. Patients both with and patients without long-term cognitive decline showed early transient increases of the astroglial biomarkers S-100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein in CSF, and in BBB permeability (CSF/serum albumin ratio). Interpretation Surgery rapidly triggers a temporal neuroinflammatory response closely associated with long-term cognitive outcome postsurgery. The findings of this explorative study require validation in a larger surgical patient cohort.
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10.
  • Dekhtyar, Serhiy, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk of dementia mitigated by cognitive reserve : A cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 86:1, s. 68-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective We investigated whether cognitive reserve modifies the risk of dementia attributable to apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE-epsilon 4), a well-known genetic risk factor for dementia. Methods We followed 2,556 cognitively intact participants aged >= 60 years from the ongoing prospective community-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K). Dementia was ascertained through clinical and neuropsychological assessments and diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria. Structural equation modeling was used to generate a cognitive reserve indicator from 4 previously validated contributors: early life education, midlife substantive work complexity, late life leisure activities, and late life social networks. Cox proportional hazard models estimated dementia risk in relation to cognitive reserve indicator. The interaction between the cognitive reserve indicator and APOE-epsilon 4 was assessed on multiplicative and additive scales. Results After an average of 6.3 years (range = 2.1-10.7) of follow-up, 232 dementia cases were ascertained. Relative to individuals in the lowest tertile of cognitive reserve indicator, those with moderate and high reserve were at a reduced risk of dementia. There was no multiplicative interaction between APOE-epsilon 4 status and cognitive reserve indicator (p = 0.113). Additive interaction was statistically significant. Relative to APOE-epsilon 4 carriers with low cognitive reserve, epsilon 4 carriers with high reserve had a reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.59). The magnitude of risk reduction was similar in epsilon 4 noncarriers with a high cognitive reserve indicator (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.15-0.40). Interpretation Lifelong engagement in reserve-enhancing activities attenuates the risk of dementia attributable to APOE-epsilon 4. Promoting cognitive reserve might be especially effective in subpopulations with high genetic risk of dementia. ANN NEUROL 2019
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