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Sökning: L773:0435 3676 OR L773:1468 0459 > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Boin, Arjen, et al. (författare)
  • Explaining Success and Failure in Crisis Coordination
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 97:1, s. 123-135
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In virtually every assessment of responses to large-scale crises and disasters, coordination is identified as a critical failure factor. After the crisis, official committees and political opponents often characterize the early phases of the response as a ‘failure to coordinate.’ Not surprisingly, improved coordination quickly emerges as the prescribed solution. Coordination, then, is apparently both the problem and the solution. But the proposed solutions rarely solve the problem: coordination continues to mar most crises and disasters. In the absence of a shared body of knowledge on coordination, it is hard to formulate a normative framework that allows for systematic assessment of coordination in times of crisis. As coordination is widely perceived as an important function of crisis and disaster management, this absence undermines a fair and balanced assessment of crisis management performance. This paper seeks to address that void. We aim to develop a framework that explains both the failure and success of crisis coordination. We do this by exploring the relevant literature, reformulating what coordination is and distilling from research the factors that cause failure and success.
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2.
  • Chen, Deliang, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • Projecting future local precipitation and its extremes for Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 97:1, s. 25-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A procedure to obtain future local precipitation characteristics focused on extreme conditions has been developed based on a weather generator. The method involves six major steps: (1) the weather generator was calibrated using observed daily precipitation at 220 Swedish stations during 1961–2004; (2) present and future daily precipitation characteristics for the Swedish stations from two global climate models, namely ECHAM5 and HadCM3, were used to calculate weather generator parameters for the present and future climates at global climate model spatial scales; (3) the ratio of the weather generator parameters for the present climate simulated by the global climate models to those calculated for each station falling into the global climate model grid box were computed for all the stations; (4) these ratios were also assumed to be valid in the future climate, that way the future parameters for each station for the global climate model projected future climate could be calculated; (5) using the estimated future parameters of the weather generator, the future daily precipitation at each station could be simulated by the weather generator; (6) the simulated daily precipitation was used to compute eight indices describing mean and extreme precipitation climates. The future mean and extreme precipitation characteristics at the stations under the Second Report on Emission Scenarios A2 scenario were obtained and presented. An overall increasing trend for frequency and intensity of the indices are identified for the majority of the stations studied. The developed downscaling methodology is relatively simple but useful in deriving local precipitation changes, including changes in the precipitation extremes.
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4.
  • Girons Lopez, Marc, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Location and Density of Rain Gauges for the Estimation of Spatial Varying Precipitation
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 97:1, s. 167-179
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accurate estimation of precipitation and its spatial variability is crucial for reliable discharge simulations. Although radar and satellite based techniques are becoming increasingly widespread, quantitative precipitation estimates based on point rain gauge measurement interpolation are, and will continue to be in the foreseeable future, widely used. However, the ability to infer spatially distributed data from point measurements is strongly dependent on the number, location and reliability of measurement stations.In this study we quantitatively investigated the effect of rain gauge network configurations on the spatial interpolation by using the operational hydrometeorological sensor network in the Thur river basin in north-eastern Switzerland as a test case. Spatial precipitation based on a combination of radar and rain gauge data provided by MeteoSwiss was assumed to represent the true precipitation values against which the precipitation interpolation from the sensor network was evaluated. The performance using scenarios with both increased and decreased station density were explored. The catchment-average interpolation error indices significantly improve up to a density of 24 rain gauges per 1000 km2, beyond which improvements were negligible. However, a reduced rain gauge density in the higher parts of the catchment resulted in a noticeable decline of the performance indices. An evaluation based on precipitation intensity thresholds indicated a decreasing performance for higher precipitation intensities. The results of this study emphasise the benefits of dense and adequately distributed rain gauge networks.
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5.
  • Guinea Barrientos, Hector E., et al. (författare)
  • Disaster management cooperation in central america : The case of rainfall-induced natural disasters
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 97:1, s. 85-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rainfall-induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. Due to the geographical conditions of the Central American region, it is common that two or more countries are struck by the same rainfall event, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region, killing more than 18000 people. As a consequence, Central American countries have started to promote regional policies and programs that aim for better preparation and response to these events, including disaster management cooperation. However, cooperation poses several challenges that may hinder its goals. In order to analyse these challenges, we present analysis in this paper of the current policy and legal institutions as well as the main challenges that may hinder international disaster management cooperation in Central America.
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7.
  • Holmlund, Erik S., et al. (författare)
  • Constraining 135 years of mass balance with historic structure-from-motion photogrammetry on Storglaciaren, Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 101:3, s. 195-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Geodetic volume estimates of Storglaciaren in Sweden suggest a 28% loss in total ice mass between 1910 and 2015. Terrestrial photographs from 1910 of Tarfala valley, where Storglaciaren is situated, allow for an accurate reconstruction of the glacier's surface using Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry, which we used for past volume and mass estimations. The glacier's yearly mass balance gradient and net mass balance was also estimated back to 1880 using weather data from Karesuando, 170 km north-east of Storglaciaren, through neural network regression. These combined reconstructions provide a continuous mass change series between the end of the Little Ice Age and 1946, when field data become available. The resultant reconstruction suggests a state close to equilibrium between 1880 and the 1910s, followed by drastic melt until the 1970s, constituting 76% of the 1910-2015 ice loss. More favourable conditions subsequently stabilized the mass balance until the late 1990s, after which Storglaciaren started losing mass again. The 1910 reconstruction allows for a more accurate mass change series than previous estimates, and the methodology can be used on other glaciers where early photographic material exists.
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8.
  • Holmlund, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Recent climate-induced shape changes of the ice summit of Kebnekaise, Northern Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 101:1, s. 68-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ice summit of Kebnekaise is slowly melting down as a consequence of climate change. In August 2018 this peak, which for a long time has been the highest in Sweden, reached an elevation a few decimetres lower than the nearby situated northern summit in solid rock. It has become a symbol of the fragility of nature. Its areal extent and shape have varied over time and its height has ranged within approximately 15 m during the twentieth century. Since the turn of the century, the ice summit has decreased to a new lower and smaller level but the changes are not uniform, and they show a complex relation between weather parameters and the shape and size of the summit. Layers in the ice include climate information of past changes. But what changes are we able to determine by examining gradually exposed dust layers, or by coring the summit. In this paper, we are analysing the late changes in shape and volume of the ice summit and we place the results into a paleo climate discussion. We have used photogrammetric methods to map the geometry of the summit at different dates when data has been available. We have also done a multiple regression to analyse the relation between the summit elevation and the net mass balance of the nearby located Storglaciaren. The correlation is good from mid 1970s until now but weak prior to that. It is herein explained by former uncertainties of the geographic position of the summit.
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9.
  • Irannezhad, MASOUD, et al. (författare)
  • THE ROLE OF ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS IN AGROCLIMATE VARIABILITY IN FINLAND, 1961–2011
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 98:4, s. 287-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2016 Swedish Society for Anthropology and GeographyThis study evaluates interannual variations and trends in growing season daily temperature sum and daily precipitation sum in Finland during 1961–2011, and their connections to well known atmospheric circulation patterns. Changes in summer (June–August) climate partially explain changes in growing season daily temperature sum and daily precipitation sum over Finland, which naturally decreased from south to north. On a national scale, growing season warmed and became wetter during 1961–2011, as growing season daily temperature sum and daily precipitation sum significantly (p < 0.05) increased by 5.01 ± 3.17°C year–1 and 1.39 ± 0.91 mm year–1, respectively. The East Atlantic pattern was the most influential atmospheric circulation pattern for variations in growing season daily temperature sum (rho = 0.40) across Finland and the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern was most influential for growing season daily precipitation sum variability (rho = –0.54). There were significant (p < 0.05) increasing trends in growing season daily temperature sum and daily precipitation sum throughout Finland during 1961–2011. Increased growing season daily temperature sum was mainly observed in northern, central, western, eastern and coastal areas of south-western Finland. This warming was positively associated with the East Atlantic pattern in the north, centre and south, but negatively associated with the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern in eastern Finland. Increased GSP mostly occurred in southern, eastern, western, central, northern and north-western Finland. These wetting trends were positively correlated with the East Atlantic pattern in the north and negatively correlated with the Polar pattern in the south and the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern in the east, west, centre and north-east of Finland. The overall agroclimatic year-to-year variability in Finland between 1961 and 2011 was mostly linked to variations in the East Atlantic and East Atlantic/West Russia patterns.
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10.
  • Jansson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Editorial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 100:1, s. 1-3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 24
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