1. 
 De Rezende, Susanna F., et al.
(författare)

Automating algebraic proof systems is NPhard
 2021

Ingår i: STOC 2021  Proceedings of the 53rd Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing.  New York, NY, USA : ACM.  07378017.  9781450380539 ; , s. 209222

Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
 We show that algebraic proofs are hard to find: Given an unsatisfiable CNF formula F, it is NPhard to find a refutation of F in the Nullstellensatz, Polynomial Calculus, or SheraliAdams proof systems in time polynomial in the size of the shortest such refutation. Our work extends, and gives a simplified proof of, the recent breakthrough of Atserias and Müller (JACM 2020) that established an analogous result for Resolution.


2. 
 Arora, Atul Singh, et al.
(författare)

Quantum Depth in the Random Oracle Model
 2023

Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing.  07378017. ; , s. 11111124

Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
 We give a comprehensive characterisation of the computational power of shallow quantum circuits combined with classical computation. Specifically, for classes of search problems, we show that the following statements hold, relative to a random oracle: (a) BPPQNCBPP BQP. This refutes Jozsa's conjecture in the random oracle model. As a result, this gives the first instantiatable separation between the classes by replacing the oracle with a cryptographic hash function, yielding a resolution to one of Aaronson's ten semigrand challenges in quantum computing. (b) BPPQNC QNCBPP and QNCBPP BPPQNC. This shows that there is a subtle interplay between classical computation and shallow quantum computation. In fact, for the second separation, we establish that, for some problems, the ability to perform adaptive measurements in a single shallow quantum circuit, is more useful than the ability to perform polynomially many shallow quantum circuits without adaptive measurements. We also show that BPPQNC and BPPQNC are both strictly contained in BPPQNCBPP. (c) There exists a 2message proof of quantum depth protocol. Such a protocol allows a classical verifier to efficiently certify that a prover must be performing a computation of some minimum quantum depth. Our proof of quantum depth can be instantiated using the recent proof of quantumness construction by Yamakawa and Zhandry.


3. 
 Björklund, Andreas, et al.
(författare)

The shortest even cycle problem is tractable
 2022

Ingår i: STOC 2022  Proceedings of the 54th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing.  New York, NY, USA : ACM.  07378017.  9781450392648 ; , s. 117130

Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
 Given a directed graph as input, we show how to efficiently find a shortest (directed, simple) cycle on an even number of vertices. As far as we know, no polynomialtime algorithm was previously known for this problem. In fact, finding any even cycle in a directed graph in polynomial time was open for more than two decades until Robertson, Seymour, and Thomas (Ann. of Math. (2) 1999) and, independently, McCuaig (Electron. J. Combin. 2004; announced jointly at STOC 1997) gave an efficiently testable structural characterisation of evencyclefree directed graphs. Methodologically, our algorithm relies on the standard framework of algebraic fingerprinting and randomized polynomial identity testing over a finite field, and in fact relies on a generating polynomial implicit in a paper of Vazirani and Yannakakis (Discrete Appl. Math. 1989) that enumerates weighted cycle covers by the parity of their number of cycles as a difference of a permanent and a determinant polynomial. The need to work with the permanentknown to be #Phard apart from a very restricted choice of coefficient rings (Valiant, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 1979)is where our main technical contribution occurs. We design a family of finite commutative rings of characteristic 4 that simultaneously (i) give a nondegenerate representation for the generating polynomial identity via the permanent and the determinant, (ii) support efficient permanent computations by extension of Valiant's techniques, and (iii) enable emulation of finitefield arithmetic in characteristic 2. Here our work is foreshadowed by that of Björklund and Husfeldt (SIAM J. Comput. 2019), who used a considerably less efficient commutative ring designin particular, one lacking finitefield emulationto obtain a polynomialtime algorithm for the shortest two disjoint paths problem in undirected graphs. Building on work of Gilbert and Tarjan (Numer. Math. 1978) as well as Alon and Yuster (J. ACM 2013), we also show how ideas from the nested dissection technique for solving linear equation systemsintroduced by George (SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 1973) for symmetric positive definite real matricesleads to faster algorithm designs in our present finitering randomized context when we have control on the separator structure of the input graph; for example, this happens when the input has bounded genus.


4. 
 Gluch, Grzegorz, et al.
(författare)

Nonlocality under Computational Assumptions
 2024

Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 56TH ANNUAL ACM SYMPOSIUM ON THEORY OF COMPUTING, STOC 2024.  07378017.  9798400703836 ; , s. 10181026

Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
 Nonlocality and its connections to entanglement are fundamental features of quantum mechanics that have found numerous applications in quantum information science. A set of correlations is said to be nonlocal if it cannot be reproduced by spacelikeseparated parties sharing randomness and performing local operations. An important practical consideration is that the runtime of the parties has to be shorter than the time it takes light to travel between them. One way to model this restriction is to assume that the parties are computationally bounded. We therefore initiate the study of nonlocality under computational assumptions and derive the following results: (a) We define the set NEL (notefficientlylocal) as consisting of all bipartite states whose correlations arising from local measurements cannot be reproduced with shared randomness and polynomialtime local operations. (b) Under the assumption that the Learning With Errors problem cannot be solved in quantum polynomialtime, we show that NEL=ENT, where ENT is the set of all bipartite entangled states (pure and mixed). This is in contrast to the standard notion of nonlocality where it is known that some entangled states, e.g. Werner states, are local. In essence, we show that there exist (efficient) local measurements producing correlations that cannot be reproduced through shared randomness and quantum polynomialtime computation. (c) We prove that if NEL=ENT unconditionally, then BQP not equal PP. In other words, the ability to certify all bipartite entangled states against computationally bounded adversaries gives a nontrivial separation of complexity classes. (d) Using (c), we show that a certain natural class of 1round delegated quantum computation protocols that are sound against PP provers cannot exist.

