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Sökning: L773:0749 3797 OR L773:1873 2607

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1.
  • Bergman, Patrick, et al. (författare)
  • Congestion road tax and physical activity
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. - 1873-2607 (Electronic) 0749-3797 (Linking) ; 38:2, s. 171-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Large-scale policy and environmental changes, such as congestion road taxes, may be a way to promote active transportation. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential effect of a congestion road tax on physical activity. METHODS: Baseline data were collected during October-November 2003, follow-up data in May 2006, and analysis was performed in September 2008. The short self-administered version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Data from those with access to motorized vehicles in the Stockholm region (n=165), where the tax was in place, were compared with those from the Goteborg/Malmo regions (n=138). Within each region before and during the road tax implementation, the data were analyzed for differences in time spent at different intensity levels of physical activity, in addition to sitting, as well as for changes in reported time in overall (weighted) physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the magnitude of the changes of the intensity levels of physical activity, weighted overall physical activity, or sitting, between Stockholm and Goteborg/Malmo. Among those exposed to the congestion road tax and with access to motorized vehicles, an increase in moderate physical activity (p=0.036); overall physical activity (p=0.015); and a reduction in time spent sitting (p=0.009) was observed. No differences were observed among those unexposed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study on the influence of a congestion road tax on levels of physical activity, though inconclusive, suggest that policy changes such as a congestion road tax might promote improvements in physical activity levels in individuals with motorized vehicles.
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2.
  • Farvid, Maryam S., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary Protein Sources and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality : The Golestan Cohort Study in Iran
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. ; 52:2, s. 237-248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Dietary protein comes from foods with greatly different compositions that may not relate equally with mortality risk. Few cohort studies from non-Western countries have examined the association between various dietary protein sources and cause-specific mortality. Therefore, the associations between dietary protein sources and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality were evaluated in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. Methods: Among 42,403 men and women who completed a dietary questionnaire at baseline, 3,291 deaths were documented during 11 years of follow up (2004-2015). Cox proportional hazards models estimated age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for all cause and disease-specific mortality in relation to dietary protein sources. Data were analyzed from 2015 to 2016. Results: Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile, egg consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.97, ptrend=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the highest versus the lowest quartile of fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of total cancer (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.64, 0.98, ptrend=0.03) and gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.75, 95% CI=0.56, 1.00, ptrend=0.02) mortality. The highest versus the lowest quintile of legume consumption was associated with reduced total cancer (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58, 0.89, ptrend=0.004), gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.58, 1.01, ptrend=0.05), and other cancer (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.47, 0.93, ptrend=0.04) mortality. Significant associations between total red meat and poultry intake and allcause, cardiovascular disease, or cancer mortality rate were not observed among all participants. Conclusions: These findings support an association of higher fish and legume consumption with lower cancer mortality, and higher egg consumption with lower all-cause mortality. (C) 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Long, Gráinne H., et al. (författare)
  • Temporal shifts in cardiovascular risk factor distribution
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. ; 46:2, s. 112-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Complementary strategies to shift risk factor population distributions and target high-risk individuals are required to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD).PURPOSE: To examine secular changes in glucose and CVD risk factors over 20 years during an individual and population-based CVD prevention program in Västerbotten County, Sweden.METHODS: Population-based health promotion intervention was conducted and annual invitation for individuals turning 40, 50, and 60 years to attend a health assessment, including an oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical measures, and a questionnaire. Data were collected between 1991 and 2010, analyzed in 2012 and available for 120,929 individuals. Linear regression modeling examined age-adjusted differences in CVD risk factor means over time. Data were direct-age-standardized to compare disease prevalence.RESULTS: Between 1991-1995 and 2006-2010, mean age-adjusted cholesterol (men=-0.53, 95% CI=-0.55, -0.50 mmol/L; women=-0.48, 95% CI=-0.50, -0.45 mmol/L) and systolic blood pressure declined (men=-3.06, 95% CI=-3.43, -2.70 mm Hg; women=-5.27, 95% CI=-5.64, -4.90 mm Hg), with corresponding decreases in the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Mean age-adjusted 2-hour plasma glucose (men=0.19, 95% CI=0.15, 0.23 mmol/L; women=0.08, 95% CI=0.04, 0.11 mmol/L) and BMI increased (men=1.12, 95% CI=1.04, 1.21; women=0.65, 95% CI=0.55, 0.75), with increases in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and obesity.CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the potential of combined individual- and population-based approaches to CVD risk factor control and highlight the need for additional strategies addressing hyperglycemia and obesity.
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4.
  • Müezzinler, Aysel, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and All-cause Mortality in Older Adults : Results From the CHANCES Consortium
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. ; 49:5, s. e53-e63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality in people aged ≥60 years.METHODS: Relative mortality and mortality rate advancement periods (RAPs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for the population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe and the U.S. (CHANCES [Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the U.S.]), and subsequently pooled by individual participant meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed from June 2013 to March 2014.RESULTS: A total of 489,056 participants aged ≥60 years at baseline from 22 population-based cohort studies were included. Overall, 99,298 deaths were recorded. Current smokers had 2-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit <10, 10 to 19, and ≥20 years ago, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Smoking remains as a strong risk factor for premature mortality in older individuals and cessation remains beneficial even at advanced ages. Efforts to support smoking abstinence at all ages should be a public health priority.
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5.
  • Murray, Elizabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating Digital Health Interventions Key Questions and Approaches
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. ; 51:5, s. 843-851
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Digital health interventions have enormous potential as scalable tools to improve health and healthcare delivery by improving effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility, safety, and personalization. Achieving these improvements requires a cumulative knowledge base to inform development and deployment of digital health interventions. However, evaluations of digital health interventions present special challenges. This paper aims to examine these challenges and outline an evaluation strategy in terms of the research questions needed to appraise such interventions. As they are at the intersection of biomedical, behavioral, computing, and engineering research, methods drawn from all of these disciplines are required. Relevant research questions include defining the problem and the likely benefit of the digital health intervention, which in turn requires establishing the likely reach and uptake of the intervention, the causal model describing how the intervention will achieve its intended benefit, key components, and how they interact with one another, and estimating overall benefit in terms of effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and harms. Although RCTs are important for evaluation of effectiveness and cost effectiveness, they are best undertaken only when: (1) the intervention and its delivery package are stable; (2) these can be implemented with high fidelity; and (3) there is a reasonable likelihood that the overall benefits will be clinically meaningful (improved outcomes or equivalent outcomes at lower cost). Broadening the portfolio of research questions and evaluation methods will help with developing the necessary knowledge base to inform decisions on policy, practice, and research. (C) 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Rockette-Wagner, Bonny, et al. (författare)
  • Activity and Sedentary Time 10 Years After a Successful Lifestyle Intervention : The Diabetes Prevention Program
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. ; 52:3, s. 292-299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: This study aims to determine if evidence exists for a lasting effect of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention on activity levels by comparing objectively collected activity data between the DPP Outcome Study (DPPOS) cohort and adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2003-2006). Methods: Average minutes/day of light and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior from ActiGraph accelerometers (collected 2010-2012) were examined (2013-2014) for comparable DPPOS and NHANES subgroups by age, sex, and diabetes status. Longitudinal questionnaire data on leisure activity, collected yearly from DPP baseline to the time of accelerometer measurement (1996-2010; 11.9-year mean follow-up), were also examined to provide support for a long-term intervention effect. Results: Average minutes/day of accelerometer-derived MVPA was higher in all DPPOS subgroups versus NHANES subgroups of similar age/sex/diabetes status; with values as much as twice as high in some DPPOS subgroups. Longitudinal questionnaire data from DPP/DPPOS showed a maintained increase of 1.24 MET hours/week (p=0.026) of leisure activity in DPPOS participants from all original study arms between DPP baseline and accelerometer recording. There were no consistent differences between comparable DPPOS and NHANES subgroups for accelerometer-derived sedentary or light-intensity activity minutes/day. Conclusions: More than 10 years after the start of DPP, DPPOS participants performed more accelerometer-measured MVPA than similar adults from NHANES. Longitudinal questionnaire data support the accelerometer-based findings by suggesting that leisure activity levels at the time of accelerometer recording remained higher than DPP baseline levels.
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7.
  • Sallis, James F, et al. (författare)
  • Neighborhood environments are related to physical activity among adults in 11 countries
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. ; 36:6, s. 484-490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundUnderstanding environmental correlates of physical activity can inform policy changes. Surveys were conducted in 11 countries using the same self-report environmental variables and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, allowing analyses with pooled data.MethodsThe participating countries were Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, China (Hong Kong), Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S., with a combined sample of 11,541 adults living in cities. Samples were reasonably representative, and seasons of data collection were comparable. Participants indicated whether seven environmental attributes were present in their neighborhood. Outcomes were measures of whether health-related guidelines for physical activity were met. Data were collected in 2002–2003 and analyzed in 2007. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of physical activity with environmental attributes, adjusted for age, gender, and clustering within country.ResultsFive of seven environmental variables were significantly related to meeting physical activity guidelines, ranging from access to low-cost recreation facilities (OR=1.16) to sidewalks on most streets (OR=1.47). A graded association was observed, with the most activity–supportive neighborhoods having 100% higher rates of sufficient physical activity compared to those with no supportive attributes.ConclusionsResults suggest neighborhoods built to support physical activity have a strong potential to contribute to increased physical activity. Designing neighborhoods to support physical activity can now be defined as an international public health issue.
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8.
  • Yuan, Shuai, et al. (författare)
  • Fat Intake and Hypertension Among Adults in China : The Modifying Effects of Fruit and Vegetable Intake.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. ; 58:2, s. 294-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Evidence on the combined effect of fruit and vegetable intake and total fat intake on hypertension is scarce. This study aimed to explore the relationship among fruit and vegetable intake, fat intake, and hypertension risk among Chinese adults.METHODS: Individuals who participated in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) and were free of hypertension at baseline (n=4,368) were categorized into quartiles (Q1, lowest; Q4, highest) according to their dietary fruit and vegetable intake and fat intake. Generalized estimation equation models, adjusted for confounders, were used to explore the relationship of fat intake with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood pressure among all adults and within quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake. Data analyses were performed in 2018.RESULTS: A total of 1,086 adults developed hypertension during follow-up. In the total population, the OR of the highest quartile of fat intake was 1.40 (95% CI=1.12, 1.75) compared with the lowest. Among individuals with low fruit and vegetable intake, the odds of hypertension for those in Q3 (OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.37, 2.83) and Q4 (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.14, 2.90) of fat intake, compared with individuals in Q1, were even higher than for the overall sample. For each 50-gram increase in FI per day, the ORs of hypertension increased from fat intake Q1 to Q4 among all respondents and those with low fruit and vegetable intake, but not among those with high fruit and vegetable intake. Systolic blood pressure increased by 1.08 mm Hg (95% CI=0.03, 2.13) per 50-gram fat intake per day increment in the fruit and vegetable intake Q1 group, whereas the association was not significant in the fruit and vegetable intake Q2-Q4 groups.CONCLUSIONS: Fruit and vegetable intake modifies the relationship between fat intake and hypertension, whereby high fruit and vegetable intake may offset the detrimental effect of fat intake on hypertension. Increased fruit and vegetable intake and controlled fat intake are recommended to prevent hypertension in Chinese adults.
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