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Sökning: L773:0803 9488 > (2010-2014)

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  • Bejerot, Susanne, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • The Brief Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (BOCS): A self-report scale for OCD and obsessive-compulsive related disorders.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nordic journal of psychiatry. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-4725 .- 0803-9488. ; 68:8, s. 549-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children's version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date. Aim: The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population. Method: The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category "Obsessive-compulsive related disorders", accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive-compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS. Results: Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled "Symmetry", "Forbidden thoughts", "Contamination", "Magical thoughts" and "Dysmorphic thoughts". The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P < 0.001). Sensitivities, specificities and internal consistency for both the Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale emerged high (Symptom Checklist: sensitivity = 85%, specificities = 62-70% Cronbach's α = 0.81; Severity Scale: sensitivity = 72%, specificities = 75-84%, Cronbach's α = 0.94). Conclusions: The BOCS has the ability to discriminate OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry.
  • Björk, Tabita, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Criminal recidivism and mortality among patients discharged from a forensic medium secure hospital
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - London, United Kingdom : Informa Healthcare. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 66:4, s. 283-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: One of the goals in forensic psychiatric care is to reduce the risk of recidivism, but current knowledge about the general outcome of forensic psychiatric treatment is limited.Aims: To analyse the rate of criminal recidivism and mortality after discharge in a sample of patients sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment in a Swedish county.Methods: All offenders in Örebro County, Sweden, sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment and discharged during 1992-2007 were included: 80 males and eight females. Follow-up data was retrieved from the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, the National Cause-of-Death register and clinical files. Mean follow-up time was 9.4 years.Results: The mean age at discharge was 40 years. Schizophrenia, other psychoses and personality disorders were the most prevalent diagnoses. Thirty-eight percent of those still alive and still living in the country re-offended and were sentenced to a new period of forensic psychiatric treatment or incarceration during follow-up. Four male re-offenders committed serious violent crimes. Substance-related diagnosis was significantly associated with risk of recidivism and after adjustment for diagnoses, age and history of serious violent crime, the Hazard Ratio was 4.04 (95% CI 1.51-10.86, P = 0.006). Of all included patients, 23% had died at the end of follow-up (standardized mortality rate 10.4).Conclusions: Since repetition of serious violent crimes was unusual, results indicate a positive development subsequent to treatment for those alive at follow-up.Clinical implications: The high mortality rate suggests that more attention should be paid in evaluation of the patients' somatic and psychiatric health during and after care in order to prevent premature death.
  • Bodén, Robert, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Psychomotor and cognitive deficits as predictors of 5-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenia
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 68:4, s. 282-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cognitive deficits are common in schizophrenia but the predictive value of these deficits for long-term outcome in first-episode patients is unclear. Aims: We aimed to investigate associations of performance in psychomotor and cognitive tests with a 5-year functional and symptomatic outcome. Methods: After clinical stabilization, patients with a first schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (n = 46) were assessed for global cognitive function [Synonyms, Reasoning, and Block Design (SRB)], psychomotor speed [Trail Making Test (TMT) and finger tapping] and verbal learning (Claeson-Dahl Verbal Learning Test). The subsequent 5-year outcome regarding independent living, occupational and social function, and symptomatic remission status was assessed. Results: Low psychomotor speed was associated with poor social function 5 years later, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.37 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.08-10.51, adjusted for antipsychotic drug use. Better performance on finger tapping with the non-dominant hand was associated with an increased risk of a 5-year symptomatic non-remission (adjusted OR = 0.42, CI 0.19-0.96). Occupational function and independent living were not significantly associated with any of the investigated tests. Conclusions: Psychomotor speed is associated with a long-term outcome regarding social function and symptom remission in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.
  • Borelius, M, et al. (författare)
  • Help break the stigma against mental illness!
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nordic journal of psychiatry. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-4725 .- 0803-9488. ; 68:4, s. 225-226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Carlborg, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Attempted suicide predicts suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum psychosis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 64:1, s. 68-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have an increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide is suggested to be an important risk factor.AIM: Our objective was to assess the cumulative survival, predictive values and odds ratios of attempted suicide for suicide in a long-term cohort of patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis with and without previous attempted suicide.METHOD: Inpatients (n=224) hospitalized with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis were followed for a mean of 25 years. All patients were followed up for causes of death. Information on suicide attempt before the end of the observation period was retrieved from medical records.RESULTS: Eight percent died by suicide during the follow-up. Eighteen percent of suicide attempters died by suicide. Two percent of non-attempters died by suicide. There was a strong association between previous suicide attempt and suicide in men and women. Odds ratio for attempters vs. non-attempters was 10. Suicide risk was almost three times higher in male than female suicide attempters.CONCLUSION: Previous attempted suicide is an important risk factor for suicide in both men and women with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, particularly in male suicide attempters. The suicide risk remains high over a long period. Continuous assessment of risk factors and appropriate treatment are crucial for this patient group to prevent suicide.
  • Carlborg, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Early death and CSF monoamine metabolites in schizophrenia spectrum psychosis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 65:2, s. 101-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality than the general population. Lower concentrations of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) have been associated with suicidal, aggressive and impulsive behavior. Mortality has been suggested as a measure of impulsivity and a relationship between early death and lower concentrations of CSF monoamine metabolites has been reported but the studies are few with short periods of follow-up and small numbers.AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate a relationship between early death and concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA and HVA.METHODS: Three hundred and eighty-five inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis were lumbar punctured in a standardized manner and followed for a median of 26 years. Patients were searched to identify those who had died. Causes of death were obtained from the Causes of Death Register.RESULTS: During the time of follow-up, 97 patients died. Schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients died at an earlier age from both natural and unnatural causes of death. No significant associations were found between CSF 5-HIAA and HVA concentrations and non-suicidal death. Attempted suicide was not a risk factor for non-suicidal death at younger age.CONCLUSION: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis die at an earlier age from both natural and unnatural causes of death. Attempted suicide is not a risk factor for non-suicidal death at younger age. Low concentrations of CSF HVA and 5-HIAA were not a risk factor for non-suicidal death at younger age in schizophrenia spectrum psychosis.
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