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Sökning: L773:0903 1936 OR L773:1399 3003 > (2015-2019)

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  • Adam, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE : a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 41:5, s. 38-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4- -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3- -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.
  • Alahmadi, Fahad, et al. (författare)
  • Measures of adherence in patients with severe asthma prescribed systemic steroids in the U-BIOPRED cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Rates of sub-optimal adherence to medications in asthma range up to 70%; the impact in severe asthma is likely to be particularly high. We measured self-reported adherence in participants in the U-BIOPRED cohort prescribed daily prednisolone using the Medication Adherence Response Scale (MARS), and compared to measured urinary prednisolone and metabolites in order to determine: 1. the prevalence of suboptimal adherence by each method; 2. the ability of MARS to predict urinary steroid detection.Methods: Participants completed the MARS, and/or provided urine samples (analysed for prednisolone and metabolites by LCMS). The performance characteristics of the MARS predicting undetected urinary steroid were calculated in the subgroup having both tests.Results: 181 participants currently taking regular oral corticosteroids were included, 59% female, mean (SD) age 54(12)yrs, FEV1 64.7(20.4)% predicted. Sub-optimal adherence (MARS score < 4.5) was reported in 62 participants, and 76 did not have detectable urinary prednisolone or metabolites. Good adherence by both methods was detected in only 52 participants (34%, see table). There was no difference in daily prednisolone dose between detectable and undetectable metabolites groups (p=0.848).Conclusion: Low levels of adherence to treatment in severe asthma is a common problem, when measured either directly or self-reported. There was very poor agreement (48% concordance) between these two methods, and we suggest that, for now both approaches should be used.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Tuberculosis associates with both airflow obstruction and low lung function : BOLD results
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 46:4, s. 1104-1112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In small studies and cases series, a history of tuberculosis has been associated with both airflow obstruction, which is characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and restrictive patterns on spirometry. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric abnormalities in adults. The study was performed in adults, aged 40 years and above, who took part in the multicentre, cross-sectional, general population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, and had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on a history of tuberculosis. The associations between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction were assessed within each participating centre, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. These estimates were stratified by high- and low/middle-income countries, according to gross national income. A self-reported history of tuberculosis was associated with airflow obstruction (adjusted odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI 1.83-3.42) and spirometric restriction (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.42-3.19). A history of tuberculosis was associated with both airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction, and should be considered as a potentially important cause of obstructive disease and low lung function, particularly where tuberculosis is common.
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