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  • Lundblad, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological validation of behavioural measures of akinesia and dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neuroscience. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1460-9568 .- 0953-816X. ; 15:1, s. 120-132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an attempt to define clinically relevant models of akinesia and dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, we have examined the effects of drugs with high (L-DOPA) vs. low (bromocriptine) dyskinesiogenic potential in Parkinson's disease on three types of motor performance, namely: (i) abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) (ii) rotational behaviour, and (iii) spontaneous forelimb use (cylinder test). Rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions received single daily i.p. injections of L-DOPA or bromocriptine at therapeutic doses. During 3 weeks of treatment, L-DOPA but not bromocriptine induced increasingly severe AIMs affecting the limb, trunk and orofacial region. Rotational behaviour was induced to a much higher extent by bromocriptine than L-DOPA. In the cylinder test, the two drugs initially improved the performance of the parkinsonian limb to a similar extent. However, L-DOPA-treated animals showed declining levels of performance in this test because the drug-induced AIMs interfered with physiological limb use, and gradually replaced all normal motor activities. L-DOPA-induced axial, limb and orolingual AIM scores were significantly reduced by the acute administration of compounds that have antidyskinetic efficacy in parkinsonian patients and/or nonhuman primates (-91%, yohimbine 10 mg/kg; -19%, naloxone 4-8 mg/kg; -37%, 5-methoxy 5-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine 2 mg/kg; -30%, clozapine 8 mg/kg; -50%, amantadine 40 mg/kg). L-DOPA-induced rotation was, however, not affected. The present results demonstrate that 6-OHDA-lesioned rats do exhibit motor deficits that share essential functional similarities with parkinsonian akinesia or dyskinesia. Such deficits can be quantified using novel and relatively simple testing procedures, whereas rotometry cannot discriminate between dyskinetic and antiakinetic effects of antiparkinsonian treatments.
  • Westin, J. E., et al. (författare)
  • Persistent changes in striatal gene expression induced by long-term L-DOPA treatment in a rat model of Parkinson's disease
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neuroscience. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0953-816X .- 1460-9568. ; 14:7, s. 1171-1176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Current knowledge of the molecular changes induced by dopamine denervation and subsequent treatment with L-DOPA is based on studies performed on relatively acute and young animal models of parkinsonism. It is highly warranted to ask how well these models simulate the state of chronic denervation and sustained L-DOPA pharmacotherapy which are typical of advanced Parkinson's disease. This study investigates the effects of time postdenervation and L-dopa treatment duration on the striatal expression of opioid precursor mRNAs and FosB/DFosB-related proteins. Unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats were treated with therapeutical doses of L-DOPA for one year (long-term group) or a few weeks (short-term group). Age-matched lesioned rats received injections of vehicle or bromocriptine, an antiparkinsonian compound which does not produce dyskinesia when administered de novo. The lesion-induced up-regulation of preproenkephalin mRNA expression persisted at more than one year postlesion, and was unaffected by the pharmacological treatments applied. L-DOPA, but not bromocriptine, induced high striatal levels of FosB/DFosB immunoreactivity and prodynorphin mRNA, and these did not differ between short-term and long-term L-DOPA-treated rats. The present data provide the first demonstration that L-DOPA maintains high striatal levels of fosB and prodynorphin gene expression during a prolonged course of treatment, which simulates the clinical practice in Parkinson's disease more closely than the short-treatment paradigms studied thus far.
  • Belluardo, N, et al. (författare)
  • Neuronal expression and regulation of rat inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 by kainic acid in the rat brain
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neuroscience. - Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, BMC, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden. Univ Palermo, Fac Med, Dept Human Physiol, I-94125 Palermo, Italy. : WILEY. - 0953-816X .- 1460-9568. ; 15:1, s. 87-100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) define a protein family with the ability to counteract cell death by the inhibition of different caspases activated during apoptosis. These proteins are present in different cells, however, the function and roles of IAPs in brain tissue are not fully understood. We report here that RIAP-2, the rat homologue of human cIAP-1/HIAP-2, is expressed in different areas of rat brain as shown by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Brain regions with relatively high expression of RIAP-2 mRNA included cortex, cerebellum and different subregions of rat hippocampus. Double labelling using a specific anti-RIAP antibody and markers for neurons and glial cells, showed that RIAP-2 is predominantly expressed by nerve cells. Kainic acid treatment, which induces seizures, transiently up-regulated RIAP-2 mRNA levels in cerebral cortex, in the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of hippocampus, which returned to normal levels at 24 h. However in the CA3 region, RIAP-2 mRNA was decreased at 6 h following an early up-regulation. This region contains neurons particularly vulnerable to kainic acid induced cell degeneration. The decrease in RIAP-2 following kainic acid was also observed using immunohistochemistry. RIAP-2 protein did not colocalize with TUNEL labelling present in cells undergoing cell death. The results show that in the adult rat brain RIAP-2 is expressed mainly by neurons, and that the levels are regulated by kainic acid, which activates glutamate receptors. The decrease in RIAP-2 in specific neuronal populations may contribute to cell degeneration in vulnerable brain regions observed after kainic acid treatment.
  • Dahlqvist, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental enrichment reverses learning impairment in the Morris water maze after focal cerebral ischemia in rats
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neuroscience. - 0953-816X .- 1460-9568. ; 19:8, s. 2288-2298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive impairment is common after ischemic stroke. In rodent stroke models using occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) this is reflected by impaired spatial memory associated with the size of the ischemic lesion. Housing in an enriched environment enhances brain plasticity and improves recovery of sensorimotor functions after experimental stroke in rats. In this study we report that postischemic housing in an enriched environment also attenuates the long-term spatial memory impairment after MCA occlusion and extinguishes the association between spatial memory and infarct volume. An enriched environment did not significantly alter the expression of selected neuronal plasticity-associated genes 1 month after MCA occlusion, indicating that most of the adaptive changes induced by an enriched environment have already occurred at this time point. We conclude that the attenuated memory impairment induced by environmental enrichment after MCA occlusion provides a useful model for further studies on the neurobiological mechanisms of recovery of cognitive functions after ischemic stroke.
  • Gussing, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • NQO1 activity in the main and the accessory olfactory systems correlates with the zonal topography of projection maps
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neuroscience. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0953-816X .- 1460-9568. ; 19:9, s. 2511-2518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) is divided into spatial zones, each containing neurons expressing zone-specific subsets of odorant receptor genes. Likewise, the vomeronasal (VN) organ is organized into apical and basal subpopulations of neurons expressing different VN receptor gene families. Axons projecting from the different OE zones and VN subpopulations form synapses within circumscribed regions in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. We here show that mature neurons in one defined zone selectively express NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), an enzyme that catalyses reduction of quinones. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization analyses show non-overlapping expression of NQO1 and the Rb8 neural cell adhesion molecule (RNCAM/OCAM) in OE and axon terminals within glomeruli of the OB. In addition, NQO1 immunoreactivity reveals selective, zone-specific axon fasciculation in the olfactory nerve. VN subpopulations do not show complementary patterns of RNCAM and NQO1 immunoreactivity, instead both genes are co-expressed in apical VN neurons that project to the rostral AOB. These results indicate that one division of both the accessory and the main olfactory projection maps are composed of sensory neurons that are specialized to reduce environmental and/or endogenously produced quinones via an NQO1-dependent mechanism. The role of NQO1 in bioactivation of quinoidal drugs also points to a connection between zone-specific NQO1 expression and zone-specific toxicity of certain olfactory toxins.
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