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Sökning: L773:0954 5794 OR L773:1469 2198

  • Resultat 1-10 av 39
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  • Allegrini, Andrea G, et al. (författare)
  • Gene × Environment contributions to autonomic stress reactivity in youth
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - : Cambridge University Press. - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 31:1, s. 293-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dysregulated physiological stress reactivity has been suggested to impact the development of children and adolescents with important health consequences throughout the life span. Both environmental adversity and genetic predispositions can lead to physiological imbalances in stress systems, which in turn lead to developmental differences. We investigated genetic and environmental contributions to autonomic nervous system reactivity to a psychosocial stressor. Furthermore, we tested whether these effects were consistent with the differential susceptibility framework. Composite measures of adverse life events combined with socioeconomic status were constructed. Effects of these adversity scores in interaction with a polygenic score summarizing six genetic variants, which were hypothesized to work as susceptibility factors, were tested on autonomic nervous system measures as indexed by heart rate and heart rate variability. Results showed that carriers of more genetic variants and exposed to high adversity manifested enhanced heart rate variability reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to carriers of fewer genetic variants. Conversely, the stress procedure elicited a more moderate response in these individuals compared to carriers of fewer variants when adversity was low.
  • Baker, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Resting heart rate and the development of antisocial behavior from age 9 to 14 : genetic and environmental influences
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 21:3, s. 939-960
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic and environmental basis of a well-replicated association between antisocial behavior (ASB) and resting heart rate was investigated in a longitudinal twin study, based on two measurements between the ages of 9 and 14 years. ASB was defined as a broad continuum of externalizing behavior problems, assessed at each occasion through a composite measure based on parent ratings of trait aggression, delinquent behaviors, and psychopathic traits in their children. Parent ratings of ASB significantly decreased across age from childhood to early adolescence, although latent growth models indicated significant variation and twin similarity in the growth patterns, which were explained almost entirely by genetic influences. Resting heart rate at age 9-10 years old was inversely related to levels of ASB but not change patterns of ASB across age or occasions. Biometrical analyses indicated significant genetic influences on heart rate during childhood, as well as ASB throughout development from age 9 to 14. Both level and slope variation were significantly influenced by genetic factors. Of importance, the low resting heart rate and ASB association was significantly and entirely explained by their genetic covariation, although the heritable component of heart rate explained only a small portion (1-4%) of the substantial genetic variance in ASB. Although the effect size is small, children with low resting heart rate appear to be genetically predisposed toward externalizing behavior problems as early as age 9 years old.
  • Behnsen, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Heart rate (variability) and the association between relational peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in elementary school children
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - : Cambridge University Press. - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 32:2, s. 521-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Relational victimization typically emerges first during the elementary school period, and has been associated with increased levels of internalizing symptoms in children. Individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning have been suggested as a potential factor linking social stressors and internalizing symptoms. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether heart rate and heart rate variability mediated the association between relational victimization and internalizing symptoms in 373 mainstream elementary school children. Children were assessed in 2015 (T 0 ; Grades 3-5, M age = 9.78 years, 51% boys) and reassessed in 2016 (T 1 ). Heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed during a regular school day at T 1 . A multi-informant (teacher and peer report) cross-time measure of relational victimization, and a multi-informant (self- and teacher report) measure of internalizing problems at T 1 was used. Results showed that heart rate variability, but not heart rate, mediated the association between relational victimization and internalizing symptoms. This study provides tentative support that in children from a general population sample, a psychobiological factor may mediate the association of relational victimization with internalizing symptoms.
  • Bergman, Lars R., et al. (författare)
  • Types and continua in developmental psychopathology : problem behaviors in school and their relationship to later antisocial behavior
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 21:3, s. 975-992
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the study of developmental psychopathology a dimensional, variable-oriented approach dominates over a typological approach. With the person-oriented research paradigm providing the metatheoretical framework, pros and cons of these two approaches are discussed, and it is pointed to different methodological realizations of the typological approach, and to the contexts where they might be appropriate. It is also pointed out that the two important and underused concepts of equifinality and multifinality with advantage can be incorporated in a person-oriented approach. An empirical example is given of the study of the structure of early adolescent problem behaviors and their relationship to later criminality where dimensional as well as typological analyses are carried out. The usefulness of the typological approach in studying the development and early manifestations of the personality disorder psychopathy is also discussed. It is concluded that the usefulness of a typological approach appears to be underestimated.
  • Bertoldi, Bridget M., et al. (författare)
  • Pursuing the developmental aims of the triarchic model of psychopathy : Creation and validation of triarchic scales for use in the USC
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - : Cambridge University Press. - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; , s. 1-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The triarchic model was advanced as an integrative, trait-based framework for investigating psychopathy using different assessment methods and across developmental periods. Recent research has shown that the triarchic traits of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition can be operationalized effectively in youth, but longitudinal research is needed to realize the model's potential to advance developmental understanding of psychopathy. We report on the creation and validation of scale measures of the triarchic traits using questionnaire items available in the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB) project, a large-scale longitudinal study of the development of antisocial behavior that includes measures from multiple modalities (self-report, informant rating, clinical-diagnostic, task-behavioral, physiological). Using a construct-rating and psychometric refinement approach, we developed triarchic scales that showed acceptable reliability, expected intercorrelations, and good temporal stability. The scales showed theory-consistent relations with external criteria including measures of psychopathy, internalizing/externalizing psychopathology, antisocial behavior, and substance use. Findings demonstrate the viability of measuring triarchic traits in the RFAB sample, extend the known nomological network of these traits into the developmental realm, and provide a foundation for follow-up studies examining the etiology of psychopathic traits and their relations with multimodal measures of cognitive-affective function and proneness to clinical problems.
  • Bowen, Francois, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood internalizing problems : prediction from kindergarten, effect of maternal overprotectiveness, and sex differences
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - : Cambridge University Press. - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 7:3, s. 481-498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Used kindergarten teacher-rated anxiety-withdrawal, peer-rated popularity and shyness, and mother-rated adaptability to predict 5th-grade teacher-, peer-, and self-rated internalizing problems in 144 boys and 125 girls. The effect of maternal overprotectiveness (OP) as a moderator between kindergarten variables and 5th-grade outcomes was also examined. Kindergarten peer-rated low popularity was the best predictor of later internalizing problems for boys and girls, followed by peer-rated shyness for boys and teacher-rated anxiety-withdrawal for girls. Moderating effects of maternal OP were found only for boys. Maternal OP moderated the relation between kindergarten popularity and teacher-rated anxiety-withdrawal and 5th-grade teacher-rated anxiety-withdrawal for boys. Unpopular, anxious-withdrawn boys were more likely to be seen later by their teachers as anxious-withdrawn if their mothers were nonoverprotective.
  • Carlsson, Torkel, et al. (författare)
  • Early environmental risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders - a systematic review of twin and sibling studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - : Cambridge University Press (CUP). - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 33:4, s. 1448-1495
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are highly heritable, several environmental risk factors have also been suggested. However, the role of familial confounding is unclear. To shed more light on this, we reviewed the evidence from twin and sibling studies. A systematic review was performed on case control and cohort studies including a twin or sibling within-pair comparison of neurodevelopmental outcomes, with environmental exposures until the sixth birthday. From 7,315 screened abstracts, 140 eligible articles were identified. After adjustment for familial confounding advanced paternal age, low birth weight, birth defects, and perinatal hypoxia and respiratory stress were associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and low birth weight, gestational age and family income were associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), categorically and dimensionally. Several previously suspected factors, including pregnancy-related factors, were deemed due to familial confounding. Most studies were conducted in North America and Scandinavia, pointing to a global research bias. Moreover, most studies focused on ASD and ADHD. This genetically informed review showed evidence for a range of environmental factors of potential casual significance in NDDs, but also points to a critical need of more genetically informed studies of good quality in the quest of the environmental causes of NDDs.
  • Euser, Anja S, et al. (författare)
  • Blunted feedback processing during risky decision making in adolescents with a parental history of substance use disorders
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - : Cambridge University Press. - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 25:4 Pt 1, s. 1119-1136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Risky decision making, a hallmark phenotype of substance use disorders (SUD), is thought to be associated with deficient feedback processing. Whether these aberrations are present prior to SUD onset or reflect merely a consequence of chronic substance use on the brain remains unclear. The present study investigated whether blunted feedback processing during risky decision making reflects a biological predisposition to SUD. We assessed event-related potentials elicited by positive and negative feedback during performance of a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among high-risk adolescents with a parental history of SUD (HR; n = 61) and normal-risk controls (NR; n = 91). HR males made significantly more risky and faster decisions during the BART than did NR controls. Moreover, HR adolescents showed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes in response to both positive and negative feedback as compared to NR controls. These differences were not secondary to prolonged substance use exposure. Results are discussed in terms of feedback-specific processes. Reduced P300 amplitudes in the BART may reflect poor processing of feedback at the level of overall salience, which may keep people from effectively predicting the probability of future gains and losses. Though conclusions are tentative, blunted feedback processing during risky decision making may represent a promising endophenotypic vulnerability marker for SUD.
  • Frick, Matilda A., et al. (författare)
  • Can reactivity and regulation in infancy predict inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior in 3-year-olds?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 31:2, s. 619-629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A need to identify early infant markers of later occurring inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors has come to the fore in the current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder literature. The purpose of such studies is to identify driving mechanisms that could enable early detection of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder liability and thus facilitate early intervention. Here we study independent and interactive effects of cognitive regulation (inhibition and sustained attention), temperament (reactive and regulatory aspects), and maternal sensitivity (as external regulation) in a sample of 112 typically developing 10-month-old infants (59 boys, 52.7%), in relation to inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior at 3 years. The results showed that infant temperamental regulation and maternal sensitivity made independent contributions to both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, in that higher levels of temperamental regulation and maternal sensitivity were related to less inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior. In addition, the temperamental factor positive affectivity/surgency made a significant contribution to later hyperactivity/impulsivity, in that higher levels of positive affectivity/surgency were related to more hyperactive/impulsive behavior. No interaction effects were found. Our findings suggest temperament and parental regulation as potential and independent markers of later inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior.
  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Exploring interactive effects on genes and environments in etiology of individual differences in reading comprehension
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Development and Psychopathology. - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 19:4, s. 1089-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is established that reading and reading-related processes are heritable; genes thus play an important role in the foundation of individual differences in reading. In this article, we focus on one facet of reading–comprehension. Comprehension is a higher order cognitive skill that requires many other cognitive processes for it to unfold completely and successfully. One such process is executive functioning, which has been associated with genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Genotypes and haplotypes of four single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT were investigated in 179 incarcerated adolescent delinquents. Four hierarchical logistic regression models predicting the presence/absence of comprehension difficulties were fitted to the data; genetic variation in COMT and the presence/absence of maternal rejection were investigated as main effects and as effects acting interactively. Three out of four interaction terms were found to be important predictors of individual differences in comprehension. These findings were supported by the results of the haplotype analyses, in which the four investigated polymorphisms were considered simultaneously.
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