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1.
  • Lin, Yulan, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic syndrome and esophageal and gastric cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 0957-5243. ; 26:12, s. 1825-1834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The role of the metabolic syndrome in the etiology of esophageal and gastric cancer is unclear. METHODS: This was a large nationwide cohort study based on data from 11 prospective population-based cohorts in Norway with long-term follow-up, the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) and the third Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT3). The metabolic syndrome was assessed by objective anthropometric and metabolic biochemical measures and was defined by the presence of at least three of the following five factors: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and high glucose. Newly diagnosed cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma were identified from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULT: Among 192,903 participants followed up for an average of 10.6 years, 62 developed esophageal adenocarcinoma, 64 had esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and 373 had gastric adenocarcinoma. The metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.14-1.82), but not associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.77-2.26) or esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.64-1.83). Increased waist circumference was associated with an increased HR of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.27-4.85). No significant association was found between any single component of the metabolic syndrome and risk of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. High waist circumference (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.80), hypertension (HR 2.41, 95% CI 1.44-4.03) and non-fasting glucose (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.18-2.56) were also related to an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in women, but not in men. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in women. Of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference was positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Positive associations were also observed for women between high waist circumference, hypertension, high non-fasting glucose and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma. However, further evidence is warranted due to the limited number of cases and the inability to effectively identify gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.
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2.
  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and the risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma (Sweden)
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 9:1, s. 49-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While several epidemiologic studies have indicated a link between smoking and the risk of developing hematolymphoproliferative cancers (chiefly leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myelomas), in particular myeloid leukemia, the role of tobacco in the etiology of these neoplasms remains unclear. To evaluate the potential impact of tobacco use on development of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma, we conducted a cohort study of 334,957 Swedish construction workers using prospectively collected exposure-information with complete long-term follow-up. A total of 1,322 incident neoplasms occurred during the study period, 1971-91. We found no significant association between smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked, or duration of smoking and the risk of developing leukemias, lymphomas, or multiple myeloma. There was a suggestion of a positive association between smoking and the risk of developing Hodgkin's disease, although the rate ratios were not significantly elevated, except for young current smokers. No positive dose-risk trends emerged. Our study provides no evidence that smoking bears any major relationship to the occurrence of leukemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, or multiple myeloma.
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3.
  • Alexeyev, Oleg, et al. (författare)
  • Association between the presence of bacterial 16S RNA in prostate specimens taken during transurethral resection of prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer (Sweden)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 17:9, s. 1127-1133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study bacterial 16S RNA in archival prostate samples from 352 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluate whether the presence of bacterial DNA was different in those who later developed prostate cancer (n = 171) and in the matched controls that did not progress to cancer (n = 181).Methods: 16S DNA PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the positive samples.Results: In 96/352 (27%) of the prostate tissue specimens 16S RNA were detected. Sequence analysis revealed Propionibacterium acnes as the predominant microorganism (23% of 16S RNA positive patients). The second most frequent isolate—Escherichia coli was found in 12 (12%) patients. The other isolates included Pseudomonas sp. (3 patients), Actinomyces sp. (2), Streptococcus mutans (1), Corynebacterium sp. (2),Nocardioides sp. (1), Rhodococcus sp. (1) Veillonella sp. (2). In P. acnes positive samples 62% exhibited severe histological inflammation versus 50% in the bacteria-negative group (p = 0.602). The presence of P. acnes in the prostate was associated with prostate cancer development (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.77–6.95).Conclusions: This study has revealed P. acnes as the most common bacteria in the prostate in BPH. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in contributing to the development of prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer.
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4.
  • Almquist, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic factors and risk of thyroid cancer in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can).
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 1573-7225 .- 0957-5243. ; 22, s. 743-751
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate metabolic factors and their possible impact on risk of thyroid cancer. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted based on seven population-based cohorts in Norway, Austria, and Sweden, in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can). Altogether 578,700 men and women with a mean age of 44.0 years at baseline were followed for on average 12.0 years. Relative risk of incident thyroid cancer was assessed by levels of BMI, blood pressure, and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and by a combined metabolic syndrome (MetS) score. Risk estimates were investigated for quintiles, and a z score distribution of exposures was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During follow-up, 255 women and 133 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. In women, there was an inverse association between glucose and thyroid cancer risk, with adjusted RR: 95% CI was 0.61 (0.41-0.90), p trend = 0.02 in the fifth versus the first quintile, and a positive association between BMI and thyroid cancer risk with a significant trend over quintiles. There was no association between the other metabolic factors, single or combined (Met-S), and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSION: In women, BMI was positively, while blood glucose levels were inversely, associated with thyroid cancer.
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5.
  • Andersson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • The association between longer relative leukocyte telomere length and risk of glioma is independent of the potentially confounding factors allergy, BMI, and smoking
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 30:2, s. 177-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Previous studies have suggested an association between relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) and glioma risk. This association may be influenced by several factors, including allergies, BMI, and smoking. Previous studies have shown that individuals with asthma and allergy have shortened relative telomere length, and decreased risk of glioma. Though, the details and the interplay between rLTL, asthma and allergies, and glioma molecular phenotype is largely unknown. Methods: rLTL was measured by qPCR in a Swedish population-based glioma case–control cohort (421 cases and 671 controls). rLTL was related to glioma risk and health parameters associated with asthma and allergy, as well as molecular events in glioma including IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, and EGFR amplification. Results: Longer rLTL was associated with increased risk of glioma (OR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.02–1.31). Similar to previous reports, there was an inverse association between allergy and glioma risk. Specific, allergy symptoms including watery eyes was most strongly associated with glioma risk. High body mass index (BMI) a year prior diagnosis was significantly protective against glioma in our population. Adjusting for allergy, asthma, BMI, and smoking did not markedly change the association between longer rLTL and glioma risk. rLTL among cases was not associated with IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, or EGFR amplification, after adjusting for age at diagnosis and sex. Conclusions: In this Swedish glioma case–control cohort, we identified that long rLTL increases the risk of glioma, an association not confounded by allergy, BMI, or smoking. This highlights the complex interplay of the immune system, rLTL and cancer risk.
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6.
  • Arthur, Rhonda, et al. (författare)
  • Serum glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol in relation to prostate cancer death in the Swedish AMORIS study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 30:2, s. 195-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Lifestyle-related conditions such as obesity are associated with prostate cancer progression, but the associations with hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are unclear. This study, therefore, aims to examine the association of glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol with prostate cancer death. Methods: From the Swedish AMORIS cohort, we selected 14,150 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1996 and 2011 who had prediagnostic measurements of serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressionmodels were used to determine the hazard ratios for death in relation to the aforementioned metabolic markers. Results: Using clinical cut-off points, a non-significant positive association was observed between glucose and prostate cancer death. When compared to those with glucose in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had greater risk of prostate cancer death (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.02-1.39). However, neither total cholesterol nor triglycerides were associated with prostate cancer death. Glucose and triglycerides were positively associated with overall, cardiovascular, and other deaths. Hypercholesterolemia was only associated with risk of CVD death. Conclusion: Our results suggest that glucose levels may influence prostate cancer survival, but further studies using repeated measurements are needed to further elucidate how glucose levels may influence prostate cancer progression.
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7.
  • Behrens, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 23:1, s. 141-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries.Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency-matched by country, 5-year age groups and sex. Self-reported exposure was quantified with respect to duration of exposure and pesticide application method. We calculated the exposure intensity level based on application method and use of personal protective equipment. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analyses and adjusted for several potential confounders.293 case and 3,198 control subjects were interviewed. We did not identify positive associations with activities in farming or forestry, pesticide application or pesticide mixing. No consistent positive associations were seen with exposure intensity level scores either. The only statistically significantly raised association in this study was for exposure to chemical fertilizers in forestry (OR = 8.93; 95% CI 1.73-42.13), but this observation was based on only six exposed subjects. Results did not change when we restricted analyses to morphologically verified cases and excluded proxy interviews as well as cancer controls. We did not observe effect modification by sex or eye color.Risk estimates for pesticide exposures and occupational activities in agriculture and forestry were not increased and did not indicate a hormonal mechanism due to these exposures.
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8.
  • Bergengren, Lovisa, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of HPV and pathological changes among women 70 years of age, 10 years after exclusion from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 31:4, s. 377-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Örebro County introduced an updated screening program 2016 with primary HPV test for women over 30 years and prolonged screening, increasing the cut-off age from 56-60 to 64-70. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes and their correlation to histological changes in women, 10 years after exclusion from the screening program, due to an eventual implementation of a catch-up program including all women aged 60-70.METHODS: All women in Örebro County, born 1,946 (n = 1,968), were invited to a liquid-based cell sample with primary HPV screening. Samples were analyzed for hrHPV mRNA and positive samples were genotyped. hrHPV positive women were offered to do a conization.RESULTS: Out of 809 participants, 31 (3.8%) were hrHPV positive, of these 22 did a conization. Histologically, 5/22 (23%) had LSIL and 5/22 (23%) had HSIL. Normal histology was found in 12/22 (55%). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 33, 52, 56, and 68. Of the women with HSIL, one case of cervical cancer was confirmed in a recone biopsy after 4 months.CONCLUSION: The study showed considerable prevalence of hrHPV and histologically confirmed LSIL/HSIL. These data led to catch-up screening for women between 60 and 70 years when overlapping two screening strategies.
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9.
  • Boeing, Heiner, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract: the prospective EPIC-study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 1573-7225 .- 0957-5243. ; 17:7, s. 957-969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiologic studies suggest that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract. We studied data from 345,904 subjects of the prospective European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in seven European countries, who had completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1998. During 2,182,560 person years of observation 352 histologically verified incident squamous cell cancer (SCC) cases (255 males; 97 females) of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus were identified. Linear and restricted cubic spline Cox regressions were fitted on variables of intake of fruits and vegetables and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant inverse association with combined total fruits and vegetables intake (estimated relative risk (RR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.83-1.00 per 80 g/d of consumption), and nearly significant inverse associations in separate analyses with total fruits and total vegetables intake (RR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92-1.02) and RR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) per 40 g/d of consumption). Overall, vegetable subgroups were not related to risk with the exception of intake of root vegetables in men. Restricted cubic spline regression did not improve the linear model fits except for total fruits and vegetables and total fruits with a significant decrease in risk at low intake levels (< 120 g/d) for fruits. Dietary recommendations should consider the potential benefit of increasing fruits and vegetables consumption for reducing the risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, particularly at low intake.
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10.
  • Bonn, Stephanie E., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and weight change in men with prostate cancer : progression and mortality
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer Netherlands. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 25:8, s. 933-943
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body mass index (BMI) is a modifiable lifestyle factor that has been associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer and biochemical recurrence. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the exposure BMI at the time of a prostate cancer diagnosis and weight change after diagnosis, and the outcomes of prostate cancer progression and mortality in a large cohort study. Data from 4,376 men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer between 1997 and 2002 were analyzed. BMI and weight change were self-reported in 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in complete-case analysis (n = 3,214) using Cox proportional hazards models. Progression was experienced among 639 (14.6 %) of the study participants, and in total, 450 (10.3 %) deaths of any cause and 134 (3.1 %) prostate cancer-specific deaths were recorded during follow-up. Obese men had a 47 % increased rate of overall mortality compared to normal weight men (HR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.03-2.10). No statistically significant associations were found for BMI and prostate cancer progression or prostate cancer-specific mortality. A weight loss > 5 % after diagnosis almost doubled the rate of overall mortality compared to maintaining a stable weight (HR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.41-2.66), while a weight gain > 5 % was associated with an almost doubled increased rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.18-3.16). Being obese was associated with an increased rate of overall mortality, and gaining weight after a prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with an increased rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality.
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