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  • Gregson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Cardiology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 0965-2590 .- 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 4:2, s. 163-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE It is uncertain to what extent established cardiovascular risk factors are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVE To estimate the associations of major cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, ie, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study included individual participant data mostly from essentially population-based cohort studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 731728 participants; 75 cohorts; years of baseline surveys, February 1960 to June 2008; latest date of follow-up, December 2015) and the UK Biobank (421537 participants; years of baseline surveys, March 2006 to September 2010; latest date of follow-up, February 2016). Participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD higher usual risk factor levels (or presence/absence). Incident fatal outcomes in ERFC (VTE, 1041; coronary heart disease [CND], 25131) and incident fatal/nonfatal outcomes in UK Biobank (VTE, 2321; CHD, 3385). Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS Of the 731728 participants from the ERFC. 403 396 (55.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 51.9 (9.0) years; of the 421537 participants from the UK Biobank, 233 699 (55.4%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 56.4 (8.1) years. Risk factors for VTE included older age (ERFC: HR per decade, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.45-2.91; UK Biobank: HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92), current smoking (ERFC: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.58; UK Biobank: HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), and BMI (ERFC: HR per 1-SD higher BMI, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.50; UK Biobank: HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.32-1.41). For these factors, there were similar HRs for pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in UK Biobank (except adiposity was more strongly associated with pulmonary embolism) and similar HRs for unprovoked vs provoked VTE. Apart from adiposity, these risk factors were less strongly associated with VTE than CHD. There were inconsistent associations of VTEs with diabetes and blood pressure across ERFC and UK Biobank, and there was limited ability to study lipid and inflammation markers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Older age, smoking, and adiposity were consistently associated with higher VTE risk.
  • Alexander, John H, et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban 5 mg Twice Daily and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Advanced Age, Low Body Weight, or High Creatinine : A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 1:6, s. 673-681
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: In the Apixaban for Reduction of Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Complications in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial, the standard dose of apixaban was 5 mg twice daily; patients with at least 2 dose-reduction criteria-80 years or older, weight 60 kg or less, and creatinine level 1.5 mg/dL or higher-received a reduced dose of apixaban of 2.5 mg twice daily. Little is known about patients with 1 dose-reduction criterion who received the 5 mg twice daily dose of apixaban.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of 1 dose-reduction criterion and whether the effects of the 5 mg twice daily dose of apixaban on stroke or systemic embolism and bleeding varied among patients with 1 or no dose-reduction criteria.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Among 18 201 patients in the ARISTOTLE trial, 17 322 were included in this analysis. Annualized event rates of stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were evaluated. Interactions between the effects of apixaban vs warfarin and the presence of 1 or no dose-reduction criteria were assessed. The first patient was enrolled in the ARISTOTLE trial on December 19, 2006, and follow-up was completed on January 30, 2011. Data were analyzed from January 2015 to May 30, 2016.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Analysis of major bleeding included events during study drug treatment. Analysis of stroke or systemic embolism was based on intention to treat.RESULTS: Of the patients with 1 or no dose-reduction criteria assigned to receive the 5 mg twice daily dose of apixaban or warfarin, 3966 had 1 dose-reduction criterion; these patients had higher rates of stroke or systemic embolism (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.20-1.81) and major bleeding (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.62-2.20) compared with those with no dose-reduction criteria (n = 13 356). The benefit of the 5 mg twice daily dose of apixaban (n = 8665) compared with warfarin (n = 8657) on stroke or systemic embolism in patients with 1 dose-reduction criterion (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.66-1.32) and no dose-reduction criterion (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.97) were similar (P for interaction = .36). Similarly, the benefit of 5 mg twice daily dose of apixaban compared with warfarin on major bleeding in patients with 1 dose-reduction criterion (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.87) and no dose-reduction criterion (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86) were similar (P for interaction = .71). Similar patterns were seen for each dose-reduction criterion and across the spectrum of age, body weight, creatinine level, and creatinine clearance.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Patients with atrial fibrillation and isolated advanced age, low body weight, or renal dysfunction have a higher risk of stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding but show consistent benefits with the 5 mg twice daily dose of apixaban vs warfarin compared with patients without these characteristics. The 5 mg twice daily dose of apixaban is safe, efficacious, and appropriate for patients with only 1 dose-reduction criterion.TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00412984.
  • Bainey, Kevin R., et al. (författare)
  • Complete vs Culprit-Lesion-Only Revascularization for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 5:8, s. 881-888
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Recently, the Complete vs Culprit-Only Revascularization to Treat Multi vessel Disease After Early PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention) for STEMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [MI]) (COMPLETE) trial showed that angiography-guided PCI of the nonculprit lesion with the goal of complete revascularization reduced cardiovascular (CV) death or new MI compared with PCI of the culprit lesion only in STEMI. Whether complete revascularization also reduces CV mortality is uncertain. Moreover, whether the association of complete revascularization with hard clinical outcomes is consistent when fractional flow reserve (FFR)- and angiography-guided strategies are used is unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine through a systematic review and meta-analysis (1) whether complete revascularization is associated with decreased CV mortality and (2) whether heterogeneity in the association occurs when FFR- and angiography-guided PCI strategies for nonculprit lesions are performed. DATA SOURCES A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from database inception to September 30, 2019, was performed. Conference proceedings were also reviewed from January 1, 2002, to September 30, 2019. STUDY SELECTION English-language randomized clinical trials comparing complete revascularization vs culprit-lesion-only PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS The combined odds ratio (OR) was calculated with the random-effects model using the Mantel-Haenszel method (sensitivity with fixed-effects model). Heterogeneity was measured using the I-2 statistic. Publication bias was evaluated using the inverted funnel plot approach. Data were analyzed from October 2019 to January 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cardiovascular death and the composite of CV death or new MI. RESULTS Ten randomized clinical trials involving 7030 unique patients were included. The weighted mean follow-up time was 29.5 months. Complete revascularization was associated with reduced CV death compared with culprit-lesion-only PCI (80 of 3191 [2.5%] vs 106 of 3406 [3]%1 OR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.48-0.99]; P =.05; fixed-effects model OR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.55-0.99]; P =.04). All-cause mortality occurred in 153 of 3426 patients (4.5%) in the complete revascularization group vs 177 of 3604 (4.9%) in the culprit-lesion-only group (OR, 0.84 [95% [I, 0.67-1.05]; P =.13; I-2 = 0%). Complete revascularization was associated with a reduced composite of CV death or new MI (192 of 2616 [7.3%] vs 266 of 2586 [10.3%]; OR, 0.69 [95% [I, 0.55-0.87]; P =.001; fixed-effects model OR, 0.69 [95% [I, 0.57-0.84]; P <.001), with no heterogeneity in this outcome when complete revascularization was performed using an FFR-guided strategy (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.43-1.44]) or an angiography-guided strategy (OR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.38-0.97]; P =.52 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, complete revascularization was associated with a reduction in CV mortality compared with culprit-lesion-only PCI. There was no differential association with treatment between FFR- and angiography-guided strategies on major CV outcomes.
  • Bjorck, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes in a Warfarin-Treated Population With Atrial Fibrillation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : American Medical Association. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 1:2, s. 172-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Vitamin K antagonist (eg, warfarin) use is nowadays challenged by the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). NOAC studies were based on comparisons with warfarin arms with times in therapeutic range (TTRs) of 55.2% to 64.9%, making the results less credible in health care systems with higher TTRs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of well-managed warfarin therapy in patients with nonvalvular AF, the risk of complications, especially intracranial bleeding, in patients with concomitant use of aspirin, and the impact of international normalized ratio (INR) control. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective, multicenter cohort study based on Swedish registries, especially AuriculA, a quality register for AF and oral anticoagulation, was conducted. The register contains nationwide data, including that from specialized anticoagulation clinics and primary health care centers. A total of 40 449 patients starting warfarin therapy owing to nonvalvular AF during the study period were monitored until treatment cessation, death, or the end of the study. The study was conducted from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011, and data were analyzed between February 1 and November 15, 2015. Associating complications with risk factors and individual INR control, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of warfarin treatment in patients with concomitant aspirin therapy and those with no additional antiplatelet medications. EXPOSURES Use of warfarin with and without concomitant therapy with aspirin. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Annual incidence of complications in association with individual TTR (iTTR), INR variability, and aspirin use and identification of factors indicating the probability of intracranial bleeding. RESULTS Of the 40 449 patients included in the study, 16 201 (40.0%) were women; mean (SD) age of the cohort was 72.5 (10.1) years, and the mean CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc (cardiac failure or dysfunction, hypertension, age >= 75 years [doubled], diabetes mellitus, stroke [doubled]-vascular disease, age 65-74 years, and sex category [female]) score was 3.3 at baseline. The annual incidence, reported as percentage (95% CI) of all-cause mortality was 2.19% (2.07-2.31) and, for intracranial bleeding, 0.44%(0.39-0.49). Patients receiving concomitant aspirin had annual rates of any major bleeding of 3.07%(2.70-3.44) and thromboembolism of 4.90% (4.43-5.37), and those with renal failure were at higher risk of intracranial bleeding (hazard ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.32-3.82). Annual rates of any major bleeding and any thromboembolism in iTTR less than 70% were 3.81% (3.51-4.11) and 4.41% (4.09-4.73), respectively, and, in high INR variability, were 3.04%(2.85-3.24) and 3.48% (3.27-3.69), respectively. For patients with iTTR 70% or greater, the level of INR variability did not alter event rates. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Well-managed warfarin therapy is associated with a low risk of complications and is still a valid alternative for prophylaxis of AF-associated stroke. Therapy should be closely monitored for patients with renal failure, concomitant aspirin use, and poor INR control.
  • Chen, Hao Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Association of FADS1/2 Locus Variants and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Aortic Stenosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 5:6, s. 694-702
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Aortic stenosis (AS) has no approved medical treatment. Identifying etiological pathways for AS could identify pharmacological targets.Objective: To identify novel genetic loci and pathways associated with AS.Design, Setting, and Participants: This genome-wide association study used a case-control design to evaluate 44 703 participants (3469 cases of AS) of self-reported European ancestry from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort (from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2015). Replication was performed in 7 other cohorts totaling 256 926 participants (5926 cases of AS), with additional analyses performed in 6942 participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Follow-up biomarker analyses with aortic valve calcium (AVC) were also performed. Data were analyzed from May 1, 2017, to December 5, 2019.Exposures: Genetic variants (615 643 variants) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 and ω-3) measured in blood samples.Main Outcomes and Measures: Aortic stenosis and aortic valve replacement defined by electronic health records, surgical records, or echocardiography and the presence of AVC measured by computed tomography.Results: The mean (SD) age of the 44 703 GERA participants was 69.7 (8.4) years, and 22 019 (49.3%) were men. The rs174547 variant at the FADS1/2 locus was associated with AS (odds ratio [OR] per C allele, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93; P = 3.0 × 10-6), with genome-wide significance after meta-analysis with 7 replication cohorts totaling 312 118 individuals (9395 cases of AS) (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.94; P = 2.5 × 10-8). A consistent association with AVC was also observed (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .03). A higher ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid was associated with AVC (OR per SD of the natural logarithm, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.30; P = 6.6 × 10-5). In mendelian randomization, increased FADS1 liver expression and arachidonic acid were associated with AS (OR per unit of normalized expression, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.17-1.48; P = 7.4 × 10-6]; OR per 5-percentage point increase in arachidonic acid for AVC, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.01-1.49; P = .04]; OR per 5-percentage point increase in arachidonic acid for AS, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.04-1.13; P = 4.1 × 10-4]).Conclusions and Relevance: Variation at the FADS1/2 locus was associated with AS and AVC. Findings from biomarker measurements and mendelian randomization appear to link ω-6 fatty acid biosynthesis to AS, which may represent a therapeutic target.
  • Cowper, Patricia A., et al. (författare)
  • Economic Analysis of Apixaban Therapy for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation From a US Perspective : Results From the ARISTOTLE Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 2:5, s. 525-534
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE The Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial reported that apixaban therapy was superior to warfarin therapy in preventing stroke and all-cause death while causing significantly fewer major bleeds. To establish the value proposition of substituting apixiban therapy for warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using patient-level data from the ARISTOTLE trial.OBJECTIVE To assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of apixaban therapy compared with warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation from the perspective of the US health care system.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This economic analysis uses patient-level resource use and clinical data collected in the ARISTOTLE trial, a multinational randomized clinical trial that observed 18 201 patients (3417 US patients) for a median of 1.8 years between 2006 and 2011.INTERVENTIONS Apixaban therapy vs warfarin therapy.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Within-trial resource use and costwere compared between treatments, using externally derived US cost weights. Life expectancies for US patients were estimated according to their baseline risk and treatment using time-based and age-based survival models developed using the overall ARISTOTLE population. Quality-of-life adjustment factors were obtained from external sources. Cost-effectiveness (incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained) was evaluated from a US perspective, and extensive sensitivity analyses were performed.RESULTS Of the 3417 US patients enrolled in ARISTOTLE, the mean (SD) age was 71 (10) years; 2329 (68.2%) were male and 3264 (95.5%) were white. After 2 years of anticoagulation therapy, health care costs (excluding the study drug) of patients treated with apixaban therapy and warfarin therapy were not statistically different (difference, -$ 60; 95% CI, -$ 2728 to $ 2608). Life expectancy, modeled from ARISTOTLE outcomes, was significantly longer with apixaban therapy vs warfarin therapy (7.94 vs 7.54 quality-adjusted life years). The incremental cost, including cost of anticoagulant and monitoring, of achieving these benefits was within accepted US norms ($ 53 925 per quality-adjusted life year, with 98% likelihood of meeting a $ 100 000 willingness-to-pay threshold). Results were generally consistent when model assumptions were varied, with lifetime cost-effectiveness most affected by the price of apixaban and the time horizon.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Apixaban therapy for ARISTOTLE-eligible patients with atrial fibrillation provides clinical benefits at an incremental cost that represents reasonable value for money judged using US benchmarks for cost-effectiveness.
  • Filippatos, Gerasimos, et al. (författare)
  • Global Differences in Characteristics, Precipitants, and Initial Management of Patients Presenting With Acute Heart Failure
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 5:4, s. 401-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Question What are the key similarities and differences in characteristics, comorbidities, therapies, and in-hospital outcomes in patients with chronic and acute heart failure? Findings In this cohort study including 18& x202f;553 patients from 7 global regions, there were similarities in many regions regarding prevalence of prior heart failure, ejection fraction, and comorbidities. However, there were key differences in outpatient treatment, hospital point of entry, acute heart failure precipitants, and timing and type of inpatient intravenous therapies. Meaning These data provide information on the current global burden of acute heart failure, identify region-specific gaps in management, and note differences in practice around the world associated with patient outcomes. This cohort study compares the characteristics and management of acute heart failure in global regions comprising 44 countries. Importance Acute heart failure (AHF) precipitates millions of hospital admissions worldwide, but previous registries have been country or region specific. Objective To conduct a prospective contemporaneous comparison of AHF presentations, etiologic factors and precipitants, treatments, and in-hospital outcomes among global regions through the International Registry to Assess Medical Practice with Longitudinal Observation for Treatment of Heart Failure (REPORT-HF). Design, Setting, and Participants A total of 18& x202f;553 adults were enrolled during a hospitalization for AHF. Patients were recruited from the acute setting in Western Europe (WE), Eastern Europe (EE), Eastern Mediterranean and Africa (EMA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Western Pacific (WP), North America (NA), and Central and South America (CSA). Patients with AHF were approached for consent and excluded only if there was recent participation in a clinical trial. Patients were enrolled from July 23, 2014, to March 24, 2017. Statistical analysis was conducted from April 18 to June 29, 2018; revised analyses occurred between August 6 and 29, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures Heart failure etiologic factors and precipitants, treatments, and in-hospital outcomes among global regions. Results A total of 18& x202f;553 patients were enrolled at 358 sites in 44 countries. The median age was 67.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 57-77), 11& x202f;372 were men (61.3%), 9656 were white (52.0%), 5738 were Asian (30.9%), and 867 were black (4.7%). A history of HF was present in more than 50% of the patients and 40% were known to have a prior left-ventricular ejection fraction lower than 40%. Ischemia was a common AHF precipitant in SEA (596 of 2329 [25.6%]), WP (572 of 3354 [17.1%]), and EMA (364 of 2241 [16.2%]), whereas nonadherence to diet and medications was most common in NA (306 of 1592 [19.2%]). Median time to the first intravenous therapy was 3.0 (IQR, 1.4-5.6) hours in NA; no other region had a median time above 1.2 hours (P < .001). This treatment delay remained after adjusting for severity of illness (P < .001). Intravenous loop diuretics were the most common medication administered in the first 6 hours of AHF management across all regions (65.4%-89.9%). Despite similar initial blood pressure across all regions, inotropic agents were used approximately 3 times more often in SEA, WP, and EE (11.3%-13.5%) compared with NA and WE (3.1%-4.3%) (P < .001). Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.0; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02), HF etiology (ischemia: OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.11-2.44; valvular: OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.36-3.25), creatinine level greater than 2.75 mg/dL (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 0.71-2.40), and chest radiograph signs of congestion (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.39-2.97) were all associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Similarly, younger age (OR, -0.04; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.02), HF etiology (ischemia: OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.26-1.29; valvular: OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.38-2.65), creatinine level greater than 2.75 mg/dL (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.31-2.00), and chest radiograph signs of congestion (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.57-1.47) were all associated with increased in-hospital LOS. Conclusions and Relevance Data from REPORT-HF suggest that patients are similar across regions in many respects, but important differences in timing and type of treatment exist, identifying region-specific gaps in medical management that may be associated with patient outcomes.
  • Hess, Paul L., et al. (författare)
  • Sudden Cardiac Death After Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 1:1, s. 73-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE In the current therapeutic era, the risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) has not been characterized completely. OBJECTIVE To determine the cumulative incidence of SCD during long-term follow-up after NSTE ACS, to develop a risk model and risk score for SCD after NSTE ACS, and to assess the association between recurrent events after the initial ACS presentation and the risk for SCD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This pooled cohort analysis merged individual data from 48 286 participants in 4 trials: the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events 2 (APPRAISE-2), Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO), Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER), and Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trials. The cumulative incidence of SCD and cardiovascular death was examined according to time after NSTE ACS. Using competing risk and Cox proportional hazards models, clinical factors at baseline and after the index event that were associated with SCD after NSTE ACS were identified. Baseline factors were used to develop a risk model. Data were analyzed from January 2, 2014, to December 11, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sudden cardiac death. RESULTS Of the initial 48 286 patients, 37 555 patients were enrolled after NSTE ACS (67.4% men; 32.6% women; median [interquartile range] age, 65 [57-72] years). Among these, 2109 deaths occurred after a median follow-up of 12.1 months. Of 1640 cardiovascular deaths, 513 (31.3%) were SCD. At 6, 18, and 30 months, the cumulative incidence estimates of SCD were 0.79%, 1.65%, and 2.37%, respectively. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, older age, diabetes mellitus, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher heart rate, prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, Asian race, male sex, and high Killip class were significantly associated with SCD. A model developed to calculate the risk for SCD in trials with systematic collection of left ventricular ejection fraction had a C index of 0.77. An integer-based score was developed from this model and yielded a calculated SCD probability ranging from 0.1% to 56.7%(C statistic, 0.75). In a multivariable model that included time-dependent clinical events occurring after the index hospitalization for ACS, SCD was associated with recurrentmyocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR], 2.95; 95% CI, 2.29-3.80; P <.001) and any hospitalization (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.98-3.03; P <.001), whereas coronary revascularization had a negative relationship with SCD (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.98; P =.03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In the current therapeutic era, SCD accounts for about one-third of cardiovascular deaths after NSTE ACS. Risk stratification can be performed with good accuracy using commonly collected clinical variables. Clinical events occurring after the index hospitalization are underappreciated but important risk factors.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and Safety of Apixaban Compared With Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation in Relation to Renal Function Over Time : Insights From the ARISTOTLE Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 1:4, s. 451-460
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE:Renal impairment confers an increased risk of stroke, bleeding, and death in patients with atrial fibrillation. Little is known about the efficacy and safety of apixaban in relation to renal function changes over time.OBJECTIVES:To evaluate changes of renal function over time and their interactions with outcomes during a median of 1.8 years of follow-up in patients with atrial fibrillation randomized to apixaban vs warfarin treatment.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:The prospective, randomized, double-blind Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) clinical trial randomized 18 201 patients with atrial fibrillation to apixaban or warfarin. Serial creatinine measurements were available in 16 869 patients. Worsening of renal function was defined as an annual decrease in estimated glomerular filtration more than 20%. The relations between treatment, outcomes, and renal function were investigated using Cox regression models, with renal function as a time-dependent covariate.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Stroke or systemic embolism (primary outcome), major bleeding (safety outcome), and mortality were examined in relation to renal function over time estimated with both the Cockcroft-Gault and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations.RESULTS:Among 16 869 patients, the median age was 70 years and 65.2% of patients were men. Worsening in estimated glomerular filtration more than 20% was observed in 2294 patients (13.6%) and was associated with older age and more cardiovascular comorbidities. The risks of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and mortality were higher in patients with worsening renal function (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.17-2.01 for stroke or systemic embolism; HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.27-1.93 for major bleeding; and HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.98-2.68 for mortality). The beneficial effects of apixaban vs warfarin on rates of stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding were consistent in patients with normal or poor renal function over time and also in those with worsening renal function.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In patients with atrial fibrillation, declining renal function was more common in elderly patients and those with cardiovascular comorbidities. Worsening renal function was associated with a higher risk of subsequent cardiovascular events and bleeding. The superior efficacy and safety of apixaban as compared with warfarin were similar in patients with normal, poor, and worsening renal function.TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00412984.
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