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  • Svenmarker, S., et al. (författare)
  • Neurological and general outcome in low-risk coronary artery bypass patients using heparin coated circuits
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. - 1010-7940 (Print) ; 19:1, s. 47-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The clinical significance of heparin coating in cardiopulmonary bypass has previously been investigated. However, few studies have addressed the possible influence on brain function and memory disturbances. Methods: Three hundred low-risk patients exposed to coronary bypass surgery were randomised into three groups according to type of heparin coating: Carmeda Bioactive Surface, Baxter Duraflo II and a control group. Outcome was determined from a number of clinically oriented parameters, including a detailed registry of postoperative deviations from the normal postoperative course. Brain damage was assessed through S100 release and memory tests, including a questionnaire follow-up. Results: Clinical outcome was similar for all groups. Blood loss (Duraflo only), transfusion requirements and postoperative creatinine elevation were reduced in the heparin-coated groups. A lower incidence of atrial fibrillation was noted in the Duraflo group. Heparin coating did not uniformly attenuate the release of S100 or the degree of memory impairment. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with heparin coating and a reduced dose of heparin seems to be safe. Clinical outcome and neurological injury seem not to be associated with type of heparin coating used for CPB. However, blood loss and transfusion requirements may be reduced.
  • Svenmarker, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Static blood-flow control during cardiopulmonary bypass is a compromise of oxygen delivery
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. - 1873-734X (Electronic) 1010-7940 (Linking) ; 37:1, s. 218-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Blood-flow control during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is by tradition based on the patient's body surface area. Emergence of new techniques enables dynamic blood-flow control based on online measurement of venous oxygen saturation and oxygen consumption. Present investigation aimed to compare static versus dynamic blood-flow control with respect to use of oxygen and effects upon organ function. Methods: In this study, 100 coronary-artery-bypass surgical patients were prospectively randomised to static or dynamic hypothermic blood-flow control during CPB. In the static group, pump flow was set to 2.4 (litres per minute) times the patient's body surface area (m(2)) throughout the procedure. Pump flow in the dynamic group was varied according to the reading of the venous oxygen saturation and maintained at >75%. CPB-specific information was collected online. Blood samples were collected for analysis of haemoglobin, lactate, amylase, creatinine and C-reactive protein: pre-CPB, at weaning from CPB and on day 1 postoperatively. Results: Randomisation formed two uniform groups. Choice of static or dynamic blood-flow control during CPB had no significant effects on organ function as judged by lactate, amylase or creatinine levels. On increasing oxygen demand, oxygen balance was maintained by increasing venous oxygen extraction rates in the static flow mode and by increasing the pump flow rate in the dynamic group. Conclusions: Independent of the blood-flow control mode, oxygen balance remained preserved. However, the dynamic mode provided higher oxygen delivery, which may increase margins of safety and protection of organ function.
  • Ahlgren, Ewa, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Neurocognitive impairment and driving performance after coronary artery bypass surgery
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 23:3, s. 334-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is common after cardiac surgery but few studies have examined the relationship between postoperative neuropsychological test performance and everyday behavior. The influence of postoperative cognitive impairment on car driving has previously not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive function and driving performance after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Methods: Twenty-seven patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with standard cardiopulmonary bypass technique and 20 patients scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) under local anesthesia (control group) were enrolled in this prospective study conducted from April 1999 to September 2000. Complete data were obtained in 23 and 19 patients, respectively. The patients underwent neuropsychological examination with a test battery including 12 tests, a standardized on-road driving test and a test in an advanced driving simulator before and 4–6 weeks after intervention.Results: More patients in the coronary artery bypass grafting group (n=11, 48%) than in the percutaneous coronary intervention group (n=2, 10%) showed a cognitive decline after intervention (P=0.01). In the on-road driving test, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting deteriorated after surgery in the cognitive demanding parts like traffic behavior (P=0.01) and attention (P=0.04). Patients who underwent percutaneous intervention deteriorated in maneuvering of the vehicle (P=0.04). No deterioration was detected in the simulator in any of the groups after intervention. Patients with a cognitive decline after intervention also tended to drop in the on-road driving scores to a larger extent than did patients without a cognitive decline.Conclusion: This study indicates that cognitive functions important for safe driving may be influenced after cardiac surgery.
  • Dellgren, G., et al. (författare)
  • Eleven years' experience with the Biocor stentless aortic bioprosthesis : clinical and hemodynamic follow-up with long-term relative survival rate
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 22:6, s. 912-921
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The long-term durability and hemodynamics of stentless valves are largely unknown. Our aim was to prospectively investigate long-term hemodynamic function and clinical outcome after aortic valve replacement with the Biocor stentless aortic bioprosthesis. Patients and methods. Between October 1990 and November 2000 we inserted the Biocor stentless aortic valve in 112 patients (male/female: 38:74) with a mean age of 78.5 years (median 79.3, range 60-88). The predominant diagnosis was aortic stenosis in 86% of the patients. Concomitant coronary artery bypass surgery was performed in 31% of the patients. Average prosthetic valve size was 23.3 +/- 1.6 mm. All patients were followed in a prospective study with a mean follow-up of 66 +/- 33 months. The follow-up was 100% complete with a closing interval from October I to December 31, 2001. The observed actuarial survival of patients was compared to expected survival for an age- and gender-matched comparison population as calculated from Swedish life tables by Statistics Sweden. Relative survival rates were calculated annually for the patient population. Results. Early mortality was 7% (8/112). Late mortality was 38% (43/112). Actuarial survival at 5 and 9 years was 74 +/- 5% and 38 +/- 7%, respectively. Observed survival among patients was not different from the expected survival for the comparison population and calculation of relative survival rates indicates a 'normalized' survival pattern for the patient population. At 5 and 9 years the actuarial freedom from valve-related death was 94 +/- 3% and 86 +/- 6%; from cardiac death, 82 +/- 4% and 57 +/- 8%; from valve reoperation, 96 +/- 2% and 87 6%; from structural valve degeneration, 96 +/- 2% and 87 +/- 6%; from thromboembolism, 89 +/- 4% and 71 +/- 9%; and from endocarditis, 96 +/- 2% and 90 +/- 5%. At 9 years the transvalvular mean pressure difference for all valves was 7.3 +/- 1.3 mmHg (range 6-10 mmHg) measured with Doppler echocardiography. Aortic regurgitation progressed slowly over time in a few patients and necessitated reoperation in two patients. Conclusion. The Biocor stentless bioprosthesis has an excellent hemodynamic function and confers a good long-term outcome. This patient population could be regarded as 'cured' from valve disease since the observed survival did not differ from the expected survival for an age- and gender-matched Swedish comparison population, a conclusion that is also supported by a constant relative survival after the first postoperative year. However, despite excellent long-term hemodynamics, patients with stentless bioprostheses need to be evaluated with echocardiography at regular intervals to discover the rare cases of progressive aortic regurgitation.
  • Fosse, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Duraflo II coating of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits reduces complement activation, but does not affect the release of granulocyte enzymes : a European multicentre study
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 11:2, s. 320-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to: (a) compare complement and granulocyte activation during cardiac operations in patients operated with cardiopulmonary bypass coated with heparin by the Duraflo II method, with activation in patients operated with uncoated circuits; and (b) relate complement, and granulocyte activation to selected adverse effects. METHODS: In a multicentre study among Rikshospitalet, Ullevaal Hospital in Norway and Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden, plasma concentrations of the complement activation products C4b/iC4b/C4c (C4bc), C3b/iC3b/C3c (C3bc), the terminal SC5b-9 complement complex (TCC), and the granulocyte proteins myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin were assessed in two groups of patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass. Seventy-six patients underwent surgery operated with circuits coated by the Duraflo II heparin coating and 75 uncoated circuits. The same amount of systemic heparin was administered to all patients. RESULTS: In both groups a significant increase in C4bc was first seen by the end of operation, from 86.7 +/- 12.5 to 273.0 +/- 277.4 nM in controls and from 86.9 +/- 18.5 to 320.2 +/- 190.5 nM in the control group, confirming previous documentation that the classical pathway is not activated during CPB, but as a consequence of protamin administration. The formation of C4bc did not differ significantly between the two groups. In the uncoated group the C3bc concentration increased from 124.0 +/- 15.3 to a maximum of 1176.1 +/- 64.7 nM (P < 0.01) and in the coated group it increased from 129.8 +/- 16.1 to a maximum of 1019.4 +/- 54.9 nM (P < 0.01) during CPB. Summary values but not peak values differed significantly between the groups. In the uncoated group the TCC concentration increased from 0.52 +/- 0.03 to a maximum value of 8.09 +/- 0.57 AU/ml (P < 0.01) while in the coated group the TCC concentration increased from a baseline of 0.53 +/- 0.03 to a peak value of 5.2 +/- 0.24 AU/ml (P <0.01). The difference between the peak values was statistically significant (P = 0.00002). In both groups a significant increase in myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin release was observed by the end of operation. There was no difference in myeloperoxidase or lactoferrin release between the two groups. TCC levels were compared to the occurrence of perioperative infarction, development of lung or renal failure, postoperative bleeding, time on ventilator and days in hospital. Three patients developed perioperative infarction; the peak levels of TCC were significantly higher in these patients than in the 148 patients that did not develop infarction. The reduction in TCC formation in the heparin-coated group was not associated with differences in any of the other clinical parameters. Few adverse effects occurred in the study. The peak values of C3bc were higher in the patients needing inotropic support that in those who did not, the relevance of this finding remains uncertain. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the Duraflo II heparin coating reduces complement activation, particularly TCC formation, during CPB, but not the release of specific neutrophil granule enzymes. No certain correlation was established between complement and granulocyte activation and clinical outcome.
  • Ridderstolpe, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Superficial and deep sternal wound complications : Incidence, risk factors and mortality
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - : Oxford Academic. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 20:6, s. 1168-1175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Sternal wound complications often have a late onset and are detected after patients are discharged from the hospital. In an effort to catch all sternal wound complications, different postdischarge surveillance methods have to be used. Together with this long-term follow-up an analysis of risk factors may help to identify patients at risk and can lead to more effective preventive and control measures.Methods: This retrospective study of 3008 adult patients who underwent consecutive cardiac surgery from January 1996 through September 1999 at Link÷ping University Hospital, Sweden, evaluated 42 potential risk factors by univariate analysis followed by backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results: Two-thirds of the 291 (9.7%) sternal wound complications that occurred were identified after discharge. Of the 291 patients, 47 (1.6%) had deep sternal infections, 50 (1.7%) had postoperative mediastinitis, and 194 (6.4%) had superficial sternal wound complications. Twenty-three variables were selected by univariate analysis (P<0.15) and included in a multivariate analysis where eight variables emerged as significant (P<0.05). Preoperative risk factors for deep sternal infections/mediastinitis were obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes, smoking, peripheral vascular disease, and high New York Heart Association score. An intraoperative risk factor was bilateral use of internal mammary arteries, and a postoperative risk factor was prolonged ventilator support. Risk factors for superficial sternal wound complications were obesity, and an age of
  • Svedjeholm, Rolf, et al. (författare)
  • Are electrocardiographic Q-wave criteria reliable for diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction after coronary surgery?
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 13:6, s. 655-661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: A major assumption in cardiovascular medicine is that Q-waves on the electrocardiogram indicate major myocardial tissue damage. The appearance of a new Q-wave has therefore been considered the most reliable criterion for diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in cardiac surgery. In a study, originally intended to evaluate troponin-T as a marker of PMI, analysis of our data aroused the need to address the reliability of Q-wave criteria for diagnosis of PMI.Methods: In 302 consecutive patients undergoing coronary surgery, Q-wave and other electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria were compared with biochemical markers of myocardial injury and the postoperative course. All ECGs were analysed by a cardiologist blinded to the biochemical analyses and the clinical course.Results: The incidence of positive Q-wave criteria was 8.1%. Combined biochemical (CK-MB≥70 μg/l) and Q-wave criteria were found in 1.0%. Patients with new Q-waves did not have CK-MB or troponin-T levels significantly different from those without Q-waves. More than 25% of the Q-waves were associated with plasma troponin-T below the reference level (<0.2 μg/l) on the fourth postoperative day. Q-wave criteria alone did not influence the postoperative course. In contrast, biochemical markers correlated with clinical outcome.Conclusions: The majority of Q-waves appearing after coronary surgery were not associated with major myocardial tissue damage, and according to troponin-T one-fourth of the Q-waves were not associated with myocardial necrosis. Furthermore, the appearance of Q-waves had little influence on short term clinical outcome. Therefore, the use of Q-wave criteria as the gold standard for diagnosis of PMI may have to be questioned.
  • Svedjeholm, Rolf, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Reply to H.S. Bedi and M.S. Kalkat
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - : Elsevier. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 17:2, s. 195-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We would like to thank Dr Bedi and Dr Kalkat for drawing attention to another potential application of retrograde perfusion of the coronary sinus with oxygenated blood. The connection of the aortic and retrograde cannula to allow retrograde perfusion is beautiful in its simplicity. In contrast to our report on retrograde perfusion to treat severe myocardial ischemia during early stages of surgery, they seem to have employed retrograde perfusion in off pump surgery to avoid ischemia. However, in some cases they observed regression of ECG changes as retrograde perfusion was commenced. Although these type of clinical reports (like our own report) almost inevitably are anecdotal they do have a scientific basis (references given in the respective reports). According to current knowledge of coronary sinus anatomy and interventions, retrograde coronary sinus perfusion has the potential to alleviate myocardial ischemia caused by obstruction of antegrade flow to myocardium drained by the coronary sinus. This is in agreement with the reported experience by Drs Bedi and Kalkat, who found signs of ischemia only while performing anastomoses to the right coronary artery.Certainly, the method described deserves further evaluation in off pump surgery as it potentially allows unhurried anastomosis, and it could contribute to a reduced need for conversion to on-pump procedures and an increasing proportion of off-pump procedures in multi-vessel coronary disease. If the latter, on the other hand, is a desirable evolution for the majority of patients remains to be established.
  • Svenmarker, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical effects of the heparin coated surface in cardiopulmonary bypass
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 11:5, s. 957-964
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In a randomised study of 120 patients, undergoing primary operation for coronary heart decease, two groups were investigated as regards to the effects of heparin coated cardiopulmonary bypass on brainfunction parameters and general clinical outcome. The study group (n = 56) was perfused using an extra-corporeal circuit treated with covalent bonded heparin; the control group (n = 59) used an identical set-up without heparin treatment. Systemic heparin doses were calculated to achieve ACT levels of 250 and 500 s, respectively. Postoperative course was evaluatedby examining a set of clinically relevant parameters including a detailed registry of postoperative deviations. Brain function was assessed by the biochemical marker S-100 and tests of memory performance.RESULTS: There were several signs of reduced operative trauma in the study group. Hospital stay was reduced by nearly 1 day (P < 0.05). Time on postoperative ventilatory support was approximately 4 h shorter (P = 0.009). Chest drain blood loss was decreased both at 8 (P = 0.01) and 24 h (P = 0.007) postoperatively. Body temperature was lower after surgery and especially on days 2 (P = 0.03) and 3 (P = 0.01). Perioperative creatinine elevation was significantly reduced (P = 0.03). Neurological deviations were fewer (P =0.01). Brain function assessment revealed reduced plasma levels of S- 100 both at termination of cardiopulmonary bypass (P = 0.008) and 7 h later (P= 0.04). However, no remediation of memory impairment could be demonstrated.CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary bypass with covalent bonded heparin attached to the extra-corporeal circuit in combination with a reduced systemic heparin dose seems to reduce safely and effectively the operative stress to the patient. There were also signs of improved cerebral protection.
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