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1.
  • Andersson, Jonas, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • C-reactive protein is a determinant of first-ever stroke: prospective nested case-referent study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland). - 1421-9786 .- 1015-9770. ; 27:6, s. 544-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a determinant of stroke, but there are no prospective studies on CRP and first ischemic stroke divided into etiologic subtypes. Our primary aim was to study CRP as a determinant of ischemic stroke, classified according to Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a prospective study. A secondary aim was to study the relationship between the 1444C>T polymorphism, plasma levels of CRP and stroke. METHODS: The study was a prospective population-based case-referent study nested within the Northern Sweden Cohorts. We defined 308 cases of ischemic stroke and 61 ICH. Two controls for each case were defined from the same cohort. RESULTS: The OR for the highest (>3 mg/l) versus lowest group (<1 mg/l) of CRP was 2.58 (95% CI 1.74-3.84) for ischemic stroke and 1.63 (95% CI 0.67-3.93) for ICH. In a multivariate model including traditional risk factors, CRP remained associated with ischemic stroke (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.29-3.29). Small-vessel disease was associated with CRP in the multivariate model (OR 3.88; 95% CI 1.10-13.7). The CRP 1444 (CC/CT vs. TT) polymorphism was associated with plasma levels of CRP but neither with ischemic stroke nor with ICH. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective population-based study shows that CRP is significantly associated with the risk of having a first ischemic stroke, especially for small-vessel disease. No significant associations were found between the CRP 1444C>T polymorphism and any stroke subtype.
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2.
  • Appelros, Peter, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Risk of Stroke after Transient Ischemic Attack
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular Diseases. - Basel, Switzerland : S. Karger. - 1015-9770 .- 1421-9786. ; 43:1-2, s. 25-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In the absence of active management, the stroke risk after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be high. Almost 10 years ago, the results of the EXPRESS and SOS-TIA studies called for a more rapid management of TIA patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the other stroke risks in the longer term, after the implementation of a more active approach to TIA. We also wanted to assess the predictive value of the ABCD2 score in this context.Methods: Riksstroke is the national stroke registry in Sweden. Data from Riksstroke's TIA module, and the national cause-of-death register, for the years 2011 and 2012 were used in this study. Stroke occurrence was monitored via Riksstroke. Cox's regression was used for risk evaluation. The predictive value of the ABCD2 score was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve.Results: A total of 15,068 TIA episodes occurred in 14,102 patients. The follow-up time varied between 0 and 819 days, with an average of 417 days. The mortality for all TIA patients during the follow-up time was 7.1%. Of the unique patients, 545 had one or more strokes (3.9%), corresponding to 34 events per 1,000 person years. Significant risk factors for stroke were: age, previous TIA, atrial fibrillation (AF), oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment, hypertension treatment, and the ABCD2 items speech impairment, unilateral weakness, and diabetes mellitus. The ABCD2 score correlated with a subsequent stroke, but its predictive value was low.Conclusion: The risk of stroke is low after the acute phase of a TIA, probably lower than in previous studies. This may be due to better secondary prevention in recent years. Several risk factors predict stroke, notably hypertensive treatment, which may be inadequate; and AF, where OACs may be under-used. It is difficult to identify the role of the ABCD2 score in clinical practice.
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3.
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in Baseline Patient Characteristics during the Years 1995-2008: Observations from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular Diseases. - : Karger. - 1421-9786 .- 1015-9770. ; 30:2, s. 114-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Reported improvements in outcome in stroke patients treated in hospital are often attributed to advances in stroke care. However, secular trends in patient characteristics that are present already on admission to hospital may also contribute to improved outcome. Methods: Time trends for baseline data (289,854 stroke admittances) in Riks-Stroke, the Swedish national quality register for stroke care, were analyzed for the years 1995 through 2008. The following data were included: number of strokes for each year, age, sex, risk factors, stroke subtype, stroke severity, functional status and need of external home service before the stroke. Results: The number of annually reported strokes increased until 2005. The proportion of recurrent strokes decreased from 28.0 to 25.9%. The mean age at first-ever stroke increased in women, but not in men. The proportion of smokers dropped, and the proportion of patients who had treated hypertension increased. The stroke severity decreased in men. The prestroke functional status (walking, dressing, toileting) improved in both sexes over these years. More patients lived alone in 2008 than in 1995, and more had home help service. Conclusions: Many baseline parameters in Riks-Stroke have changed over the years. This has consequences for the interpretation of outcome data. Some changes may be due to inclusion bias, others due to alterations in general health, evolution of vascular risk factors or demographics. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
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4.
  • Appelros, Peter, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in Stroke Treatment and Outcome between 1995 and 2010 : Observations from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular Diseases. - : S. Karger. - 1015-9770 .- 1421-9786. ; 37:1, s. 22-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Continuous changes in stroke treatment and care, as well as changes in stroke characteristics, may alter stroke outcome over time. The aim of this paper is to describe time trends for treatment and outcome data, and to discuss if any such changes could be attributed to quality changes in stroke care.Methods: Data from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish stroke register, were analyzed for the time period of 1995 through 2010. The total number of patients included was 320,181. The following parameters were included: use of computed tomography (CT), stroke unit care, thrombolysis, medication before and after the stroke, length of stay in hospital, and discharge destination. Three months after stroke, data regarding walking, toileting and dressing ability, as well social situation, were gathered. Survival status after 7, 27 and 90 days was registered. Results: In 1995, 53.9% of stroke patients were treated in stroke units. In 2010 this proportion had increased to 87.5%. Fewer patients were discharged to geriatric or rehabilitation departments in later years (23.6% in 2001 compared with 13.4% in 2010), but more were discharged directly home (44.2 vs. 52.4%) or home with home rehabilitation (0 vs. 10.7%). The need for home help service increased from 18.2% in 1995 to 22.1% in 2010. Regarding prevention, more patients were on warfarin, antihypertensives and statins both before and after the stroke. The functional outcome measures after 3 months did improve from 2001 to 2010. In 2001, 83.8% of patients were walking independently, while 85.6% were independent in 2010. For toileting, independence increased from 81.2 to 84.1%, and for dressing from 78.0 to 80.4%. Case fatality (CF) rates after 3 months increased from 18.7% (2001) to 20.0% (2010). This trend is driven by patients with severe strokes.Conclusions: Stroke outcomes may change over a relatively short time period. In some ways, the quality of care has improved. More stroke patients have CT, more patients are treated in stroke units and more have secondary prevention. Patients with milder strokes may have benefited more from these measures than patients with severe strokes. Increased CF rates for patients with severe stroke may be caused by shorter hospital stays, shorter in-hospital rehabilitation periods and lack of suitable care after discharge from hospital. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel
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5.
  • Asplund, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Stroke in the elderly
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular Diseases. - 1015-9770 .- 1421-9786. ; 2, s. 152-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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6.
  • Berglund, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Face Arm Speech Time Test use in the prehospital setting, better in the ambulance than in the emergency medical communication center
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular Diseases. - Basel, Switzerland : S. Karger. - 1015-9770 .- 1421-9786. ; 37:3, s. 212-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prehospital identification of acute stroke increases the possibility of early treatment and good outcome. To increase identification of stroke, the Face Arm Speech Time (FAST) test was introduced in the Emergency Medical Communication Center (EMCC). This substudy aims to evaluate the implementation of the FAST test in the EMCC and the ambulance service.METHODS: The study was conducted in the region of Stockholm, Sweden during 6 months. The study population consisted of all calls to the EMCC concerning patients presenting at least one FAST symptom or a history/finding making the EMCC or ambulance personnel to suspect stroke within 6 h. Positive FAST was compared to diagnosis at discharge. Positive predictive values (PPV) for a stroke diagnosis at discharge were calculated.RESULTS: In all, 900 patients with a median age of 71 years were enrolled, 667 (74%) by the EMCC and 233 (26%) by the ambulances. At discharge, 472 patients (52%) were diagnosed with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), 337 identified by the EMCC (71%) and 135 (29%) by the ambulances. The PPV for a discharge diagnosis of stroke/TIA was 51% (CI 47-54%) in EMCC-enrolled and 58% (CI 52-64%) in ambulance-enrolled patients. With a positive FAST the PPV of a correct stroke/TIA diagnosis increased to 56% (CI 52-61%) and 73% (CI 66-80%) in EMCC- and ambulance-enrolled patients, respectively. Positive FAST from EMCC was also found in 44% of patients with a nonstroke diagnosis at discharge. A stroke/TIA diagnosis at discharge but negative FAST was found in 58 and 27 patients enrolled by the EMCC and ambulances, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The PPV of FAST is higher when used on the scene by ambulance than by EMCC. FAST may be a useful prehospital tool to identify stroke/TIA but has limitations as the test can be negative in true strokes, can be positive in nonstrokes, and FAST symptoms may be present but not identified in the emergency call. For the prehospital care situation better identification tools are needed.
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