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1.
  • Abramian, David, 1992-, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion-Informed Spatial Smoothing of fMRI Data in White Matter Using Spectral Graph Filters
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 237
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brain activation mapping using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been extensively studied in brain gray matter (GM), whereas in large disregarded for probing white matter (WM). This unbalanced treatment has been in part due to controversies in relation to the nature of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in WM and its detachability. However, an accumulating body of studies has provided solid evidence of the functional significance of the BOLD signal in WM and has revealed that it exhibits anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations and structure-specific fluctuations concomitant with those of the cortical BOLD signal. In this work, we present an anisotropic spatial filtering scheme for smoothing fMRI data in WM that accounts for known spatial constraints on the BOLD signal in WM. In particular, the spatial correlation structure of the BOLD signal in WM is highly anisotropic and closely linked to local axonal structure in terms of shape and orientation, suggesting that isotropic Gaussian filters conventionally used for smoothing fMRI data are inadequate for denoising the BOLD signal in WM. The fundamental element in the proposed method is a graph-based description of WM that encodes the underlying anisotropy observed across WM, derived from diffusion-weighted MRI data. Based on this representation, and leveraging graph signal processing principles, we design subject-specific spatial filters that adapt to a subject’s unique WM structure at each position in the WM that they are applied at. We use the proposed filters to spatially smooth fMRI data in WM, as an alternative to the conventional practice of using isotropic Gaussian filters. We test the proposed filtering approach on two sets of simulated phantoms, showcasing its greater sensitivity and specificity for the detection of slender anisotropic activations, compared to that achieved with isotropic Gaussian filters. We also present WM activation mapping results on the Human Connectome Project’s 100-unrelated subject dataset, across seven functional tasks, showing that the proposed method enables the detection of streamline-like activations within axonal bundles.
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  • Ahs, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • High-frequency heart rate variability and cortico-striatal activity in men and women with social phobia
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 47:3, s. 815-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying brain systems that regulate or modulate autonomic nervous system functions may identify pathways through which psychosocial factors can influence health and disease. Reduced high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) characterizes anxiety disordered patients and is predictive of adverse myocardial events. Sex differences in the prevalence of anxiety disorders and cardiac diseases implicate the possibility of sex specific neural regulation of HF-HRV. We investigated the correlation between HF-HRV and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 28 subjects (15 women) with social phobia undergoing a stressful public speaking task. Regional CBF was measured with [(15)O] water positron emission tomography. Stress induced rCBF correlated positively with HF-HRV in the right supra genual anterior cingulate cortex Brodmann's area (BA) 32, the right head of the caudate nucleus and bilaterally in the medial prefrontal cortex (BA10), extending into the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA46) in the left hemisphere. Men showed larger positive co-variation in the caudate than women. These findings underscore the importance of the emotional division of the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex and the striatum in cardiovagal activity. The study replicates and extends results from published functional neuroimaging studies on cardioregulatory or modulatory areas in healthy subjects to men and women with social phobia. Moreover, caudate functions, possibly related to dopaminergic neurotransmission, have sexually dimorphic effects on vagal modulation of the heart.
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3.
  • Akram, Harith, et al. (författare)
  • Subthalamic deep brain stimulation sweet spots and hyperdirect cortical connectivity in Parkinson's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 158, s. 332-345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Firstly, to identify subthalamic region stimulation clusters that predict maximum improvement in rigidity, bradykinesia and tremor, or emergence of side-effects; and secondly, to map-out the cortical fingerprint, mediated by the hyperdirect pathways which predict maximum efficacy.Methods: High angular resolution diffusion imaging in twenty patients with advanced Parkinson's disease was acquired prior to bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. All contacts were screened one-year from surgery for efficacy and side-effects at different amplitudes. Voxel-based statistical analysis of volumes of tissue activated models was used to identify significant treatment clusters. Probabilistic tractography was employed to identify cortical connectivity patterns associated with treatment efficacy.Results: All patients responded well to treatment (46% mean improvement off medication UPDRS-III [p < 0.0001]) without significant adverse events. Cluster corresponding to maximum improvement in tremor was in the posterior, superior and lateral portion of the nucleus. Clusters corresponding to improvement in bradykinesia and rigidity were nearer the superior border in a further medial and posterior location. The rigidity cluster extended beyond the superior border to the area of the zona incerta and Forel-H-2 field. When the clusters where averaged, the coordinates of the area with maximum overall efficacy was X = -10(-9.5), Y = -3(-1) and Z = -7(-3) in MNI(AC-PC) space. Cortical connectivity to primary motor area was predictive of higher improvement in tremor; whilst that to supplementary motor area was predictive of improvement in bradykinesia and rigidity; and connectivity to prefrontal cortex was predictive of improvement in rigidity.Interpretation: These findings support the presence of overlapping stimulation sites within the subthalamic nucleus and its superior border, with different cortical connectivity patterns, associated with maximum improvement in tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia.
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  • Andersen, L. M., et al. (författare)
  • On-scalp MEG SQUIDs are sensitive to early somatosensory activity unseen by conventional MEG
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has a unique capacity to resolve the spatio-temporal development of brain activity from non-invasive measurements. Conventional MEG, however, relies on sensors that sample from a distance (20–40 ​mm) to the head due to thermal insulation requirements (the MEG sensors function at 4 ​K in a helmet). A gain in signal strength and spatial resolution may be achieved if sensors are moved closer to the head. Here, we report a study comparing measurements from a seven-channel on-scalp SQUID MEG system to those from a conventional (in-helmet) SQUID MEG system. We compared the spatio-temporal resolution between on-scalp and conventional MEG by comparing the discrimination accuracy for neural activity patterns resulting from stimulating five different phalanges of the right hand. Because of proximity and sensor density differences between on-scalp and conventional MEG, we hypothesized that on-scalp MEG would allow for a more high-resolved assessment of these activity patterns, and therefore also a better classification performance in discriminating between neural activations from the different phalanges. We observed that on-scalp MEG provided better classification performance during an early post-stimulus period (10–20 ​ms). This corresponded to the electroencephalographic (EEG) component P16/N16 and was an unexpected observation as this component is usually not observed in conventional MEG. This finding shows that on-scalp MEG enables a richer registration of the cortical signal, indicating a sensitivity to what are potentially sources in the thalamo-cortical radiation. We had originally expected that on-scalp MEG would provide better classification accuracy based on activity in proximity to the P60m component compared to conventional MEG. This component indeed allowed for the best classification performance for both MEG systems (60–75%, chance 50%). However, we did not find that on-scalp MEG allowed for better classification than conventional MEG at this latency. We suggest that this absence of differences is due to the limited sensor coverage in the recording, in combination with our strategy for positioning the on-scalp MEG sensors. We show how the current sensor coverage may have limited our chances to register the necessary between-phalange source field dissimilarities for fair hypothesis testing, an approach we otherwise believe to be useful for future benchmarking measurements. © 2020 The Authors
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