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1.
  • Kack, U, et al. (författare)
  • Reply
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. - 1097-6825. ; 37:2, s. 449-451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Abrahamsson, Thomas R., et al. (författare)
  • Low diversity of the gut microbiota in infants with atopic eczema
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - New York, USA : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 129:2, s. 434-U244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is debated whether a low total diversity of the gut microbiota in early childhood is more important than an altered prevalence of particular bacterial species for the increasing incidence of allergic disease. The advent of powerful, cultivation-free molecular methods makes it possible to characterize the total microbiome down to the genus level in large cohorts. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to atopic eczema development. METHODS: Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months of age in 20 infants with IgE-associated eczema and 20 infants without any allergic manifestation until 2 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). RESULTS: Infants with IgE-associated eczema had a lower diversity of the total microbiota at 1 month (P= .004) and a lower diversity of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the genus Bacteroides at 1 month (P= .02 and P= .01) and the phylum Proteobacteria at 12 months of age (P= .02). The microbiota was less uniform at 1 month than at 12 months of age, with a high interindividual variability. At 12 months, when the microbiota had stabilized, Proteobacteria, comprising gram-negative organisms, were more abundant in infants without allergic manifestation (Empirical Analysis of Digital Gene Expression in R edgeR test: P= .008, q= 0.02). CONCLUSION: Low intestinal microbial diversity during the first month of life was associated with subsequent atopic eczema.
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  • Abrahamsson, Thomas R, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema : a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 119:5, s. 1174-1180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: An altered microbial exposure may underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies. Probiotics may alleviate and even prevent eczema in infants. OBJECTIVE: To prevent eczema and sensitization in infants with a family history of allergic disease by oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which comprised 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 188 completed the study. The mothers received L reuteri ATCC 55730 (1 x 10(8) colony forming units) daily from gestational week 36 until delivery. Their babies then continued with the same product from birth until 12 months of age and were followed up for another year. Primary outcome was allergic disease, with or without positive skin prick test or circulating IgE to food allergens. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of eczema was similar, 36% in the treated versus 34% in the placebo group. The L reuteri group had less IgE-associated eczema during the second year, 8% versus 20% (P = .02), however. Skin prick test reactivity was also less common in the treated than in the placebo group, significantly so for infants with mothers with allergies, 14% versus 31% (P = .02). Wheeze and other potentially allergic diseases were not affected. CONCLUSION: Although a preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema was not confirmed, the treated infants had less IgE-associated eczema at 2 years of age and therefore possibly run a reduced risk to develop later respiratory allergic disease. CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Probiotics may reduce the incidence of IgE-associated eczema in infancy.
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  • Adlerberth, Ingegerd, 1959, et al. (författare)
  • Gut microbiota and development of atopic eczema in 3 European birth cohorts.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 120:2, s. 343-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the immune system by gut microbes might prevent allergy development. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the hypothesis that sensitization to food allergens and atopic eczema are influenced by the infantile intestinal colonization pattern. METHODS: Infants were recruited perinatally in Göteborg (n = 116), London (n = 108), and Rome (n = 100). Commensal bacteria were identified to the genus or species level in rectal (3 days) and quantitative stool cultures (7, 14, and 28 days and 2, 6, and 12 months of age). At 18 months of age, atopic eczema and total and food-specific IgE levels were assessed. These outcomes were modeled in relation to time to colonization with 11 bacterial groups and to ratios of strict anaerobic to facultative anaerobic bacteria and gram-positive to gram-negative bacteria at certain time points. Study center, mode of delivery, parity, and infant diet were included as covariates. RESULTS: Neither atopic eczema nor food-specific IgE by 18 months of age were associated with time of acquisition of any particular bacterial group. Cesarean section delayed colonization by Escherichia coli and Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium species, giving way to, for example, Clostridium species. Lack of older siblings was associated with earlier colonization by Clostridium species and lower strict anaerobic/facultative anaerobic ratio at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the hypothesis that sensitization to foods or atopic eczema in European infants in early life is associated with lack of any particular culturable intestinal commensal bacteria. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The nature of the microbial stimulus required for protection from allergy remains to be identified.
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