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Sökning: L773:1175 3277 OR L773:1179 187X

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  • Andersson, Tommy, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Esomeprazole With/Without Acetylsalicylic Acid, Omeprazole and Lansoprazole on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Clopidogrel in Healthy Volunteers
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. - 1175-3277 .- 1179-187X. ; 14:3, s. 217-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel was assessed in two healthy volunteer crossover studies. Study 1: subjects received clopidogrel alone (300-mg loading dose, then 75 mg/day for 28 days) and two of three PPIs (omeprazole 80 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg or lansoprazole 60 mg) plus clopidogrel for 29 days in three treatment periods (randomized treatment sequence assignment). Study 2: subjects received clopidogrel alone (75 mg/day for 9 days) and clopidogrel alone for 4 days followed by clopidogrel plus fixed-combination esomeprazole 20 mg/low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 81 mg for 5 days in two treatment periods (randomized treatment sequence assignment). Pharmacokinetic effects were estimated by measuring active metabolite of clopidogrel, and pharmacodynamic effects by inhibition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. There was a relative decrease of up to 50 % in exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel with the different PPIs (study 1), and close to 40 % with esomeprazole/low-dose ASA (study 2), compared with clopidogrel alone. There was an absolute decrease of up to 17 % in inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation with co-administration of different PPIs, compared with clopidogrel alone; however, no differences in platelet inhibition were observed during co-administration with the esomeprazole/low-dose ASA fixed-dose combination. Omeprazole, esomeprazole and lansoprazole decreased systemic exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel in healthy volunteers, leading to modest decreases in its antiplatelet effect. However, no apparent differences in platelet inhibition were observed when esomeprazole was co-administered with low-dose ASA as a fixed-dose combination.
  • Herlitz, Johan, 1949, et al. (författare)
  • Low-dose aspirin therapy for cardiovascular prevention: quantification and consequences of poor compliance or discontinuation.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions. - : Adis International Ltd.. - 1175-3277 .- 1179-187X. ; 10:2, s. 125-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long-term therapy with low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA), 75-325 mg, is highly effective for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events. For high-CV-risk patients to attain the full benefits of this therapy, it is important that treatment is continuous and that good compliance is maintained over the long term. We aimed to quantify the level of, and investigate the reasons for, patient-driven non-compliance and treatment discontinuation among patients taking low-dose ASA for the prevention of CV events. We therefore performed a systematic search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases using the terms 'aspirin' AND 'patient compliance' OR 'withdrawal', with no restrictions on the start date and up to July 2008. A total of 32 studies, summarizing >144 800 patients, were selected from over 400 results for inclusion. Poor compliance (defined differently among the studies included) with low-dose ASA therapy ranged from approximately 10% to over 50%, and patient-initiated discontinuation of therapy occurred in up to 30% of patients. Common predictors of both non-compliance and treatment discontinuation were lower education level, female sex, or a history of depression, diabetes mellitus, or cigarette smoking. Adverse events were cited as the reason for low-dose ASA discontinuation in almost 50% of patients. The findings of this review suggest that poor compliance is common among patients receiving low-dose ASA therapy, placing them at substantial risk of CV events. By addressing barriers to compliance with low-dose ASA therapy, healthcare professionals can improve CV risk management for such patients.
  • Lapostolle, Frédéric, et al. (författare)
  • Morphine and Ticagrelor Interaction in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction : ATLANTIC-Morphine
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. - Auckland, New Zealand : Adis International Ltd.. - 1175-3277 .- 1179-187X. ; 19, s. 173-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Morphine adversely impacts the action of oral adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor blockers in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, and is possibly associated with differing patient characteristics. This retrospective analysis investigated whether interaction between morphine use and pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (pre-PCI) ST-segment elevation resolution in STEMI patients in the ATLANTIC study was associated with differences in patient characteristics and management.METHODS: ATLANTIC was an international, multicenter, randomized study of treatment in the acute ambulance/hospital setting where STEMI patients received ticagrelor 180 mg ± morphine. Patient characteristics, cardiovascular history, risk factors, management, and outcomes were recorded.RESULTS: Opioids (97.6% morphine) were used in 921 out of 1862 patients (49.5%). There were no significant differences in age, sex or cardiovascular history, but more morphine-treated patients had anterior myocardial infarction and left-main disease. Time from chest pain to electrocardiogram and ticagrelor loading was shorter with morphine (both p = 0.01) but not total ischemic time. Morphine-treated patients more frequently received glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (p = 0.002), thromboaspiration and stent implantation (both p < 0.001). No significant difference between the two groups was found regarding pre-PCI ≥ 70% ST-segment elevation resolution, death, myocardial infarction, stroke, urgent revascularization and definitive acute stent thrombosis. More morphine-treated patients had an absence of pre-PCI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3 flow (85.8% vs. 79.7%; p = 0.001) and more had TIMI major bleeding (1.1% vs. 0.1%; p = 0.02).CONCLUSIONS: Morphine-treatment was associated with increased GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use, less pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow, and more bleeding. Judicious morphine use is advised with non-opioid analgesics preferred for non-severe acute pain.TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01347580.
  • Lubenow, Norbert, et al. (författare)
  • Drugs for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. - 1175-3277 .- 1179-187X. ; 1:6, s. 429-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), a serious adverse effect of heparin mediated by platelet-activating heparin-dependent antibodies, require alternative anticoagulation. This is because HIT is highly prothrombotic and is characterized by markedly increased thrombin generation. Unfractionated heparins seem to induce HIT more often than low molecular weight heparins. There are three anticoagulants for which there is an emerging consensus for their efficacy in management of HIT, and which are currently approved for treatment of HIT in several countries: the recombinant hirudin, lepirudin, a direct thrombin inhibitor; the synthetic direct thrombin inhibitor, argatroban; and the heparinoid, danaparoid sodium, mainly exhibiting antifactor-Xa activity. Recommendations for optimal use of these drugs in HIT are given in this review stressing the need for immediate treatment of patients with HIT without awaiting laboratory diagnosis. Hirudin, the drug for which most data from prospective trials exists, can be safely and effectively used in patients with HIT, its dramatically increased elimination half-life in patients with renal failure being the most important drawback. Argatroban, which is mainly eliminated by the liver, could be used preferentially in such patients with renal impairment. Interference with the international normalized ratio makes oral anticoagulation, which is necessary in many patients with HIT, problematic. Activated partial thromboplastin time is sufficient to monitor lepirudin and argatroban treatment in most cases. Danaparoid sodium, with an antifactor-X activity half-life of about 24 hours seems to be best suited for thrombosis prophylaxis in patients with HIT. In some patients monitoring by determining antifactor-Xa activity is necessary. No antidote is available for any of the drugs discussed, and bleeding complications are the most important adverse effects. In situations such as hemodialysis or cardiopulmonary bypass, not only the characteristics of the drug in use itself, but also availability of monitoring methods play an important role. Adjunctive treatments have not been systematically evaluated and should be used cautiously. Recent data suggest that re-exposure of patients with a history of HIT with heparin, for example during cardiopulmonary bypass, can be well tolerated provided no circulating HIT antibodies are detectable at the time of re-exposure, and heparin is strictly avoided pre- and postoperatively.
  • Egstrup, Kenneth, et al. (författare)
  • QT Response after a Test Dose and during Maintenance Therapy with AZD1305 in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions. - 1179-187X. ; 11:3, s. 199-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objective: AZD1305 is an investigational antiarrhythmic agent that prolongs refractoriness through combined potassium and sodium channel inhibition. This study aimed to explore the utility of a test dose in predicting QT interval corrected according to Fridericia's formula (QTcF) during subsequent maintenance treatment with AZD1305. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial carried out at multiple hospital cardiac facilities in Denmark, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and Sweden. Patients with documented atrial fibrillation (AF) but currently in stable sinus rhythm for ≥2 hours and ≤90 days were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomized in a 1 : 1 : 1 ratio to receive AZD1305 extended-release or matching placebo tablets as follows: group A - test dose 250 mg, evening dose 125 mg on day 1, maintenance dose 125 mg twice daily; group B - test dose 500 mg, placebo evening dose, maintenance dose 125 mg twice daily; placebo group - placebo test and maintenance dose. Maintenance dosing was for 9 days. QTcF >550 ms at any time during the in-patient phase or >500 ms after discharge (day 4) were predefined study drug discontinuation criteria. The main outcome measure was the relationship between QTcF following the test dose and during maintenance treatment. Results: Sixty-five patients were randomized (n = 21, 22, and 22 in group A, group B, and the placebo group, respectively). AZD1305 dose-dependently increased QTcF. There was a positive, linear correlation between the change in QTcF during the first 6 hours after the test dose and during the maintenance phase. Three patients, all from group B, discontinued treatment on day 1 due to QTcF >550 ms. All other patients completed the study without events related to QT prolongation. There was a trend for reduced AF recurrence with AZD1305 compared with placebo. Conclusion: In this exploratory study a test dose predicted the QT response during maintenance treatment with AZD1305 and may thus be employed in further studies. [ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00643448].
  • Jakubowski, Joseph A., et al. (författare)
  • The Rationale for and Clinical Pharmacology of Prasugrel 5 mg
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. - : Adis International. - 1175-3277. ; 17:2, s. 109-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prasugrel is a third-generation thienopyridine platelet P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist administered with aspirin for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with planned percutaneous coronary intervention. Prasugrel is administered periprocedurally at an oral loading dose of 60 mg followed by daily maintenance doses (MDs) of 10 mg for most patients and 5 mg for patients weighing <60 kg or aged ≥75 years. Data from a prasugrel phase III study, TRITON-TIMI 38, suggested that a lower MD might be more suitable for patients weighing <60 kg or aged ≥75 years; subsequent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have indicated that prasugrel 5 mg reduced platelet reactivity in these populations to an extent similar to that of prasugrel 10 mg in heavier or younger patients. Clinical experience with prasugrel 5 mg is limited, and additional studies are needed to verify the clinical efficacy and safety of this dose in these challenging populations.
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