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  • Longinetti, E., et al. (författare)
  • Physical and cognitive fitness in young adulthood and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at an early age
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - Stockholm : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 24:1, s. 137-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: There is a clinical impression that patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a higher level of physical fitness and lower body mass index (BMI) than average. However, there is a lack of literature examining the relationship between cognitive fitness and ALS risk. In this study we explored the associations of both physical and cognitive fitness with future risk of ALS.Methods: Data on physical fitness, BMI, intelligence quotient (IQ) and stress resilience were collected from 1 838 376 Swedish men aged 17-20 years at conscription during 1968-2010. Their subsequent ALS diagnoses were identified through the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs from flexible parametric models were used to assess age-specific associations of physical fitness, BMI, IQ and stress resilience with ALS.Results: We identified 439 incident ALS cases during follow-up (mean age at diagnosis: 48 years). Individuals with physical fitness above the highest tertile tended to have a higher risk of ALS before the age of 45 years (range of HRs: 1.42-1.75; statistically significant associations at age 41-43 years) compared with others. Individuals with BMI ≥ 25 tended to have a lower risk of ALS at all ages (range of HRs: 0.42-0.80; statistically significant associations at age 42-48 years) compared with those with BMI < 25. Individuals with IQ above the highest tertile had a statistically significantly increased risk of ALS at an age of 56 years and above (range of HRs: 1.33-1.81), whereas individuals with stress resilience above the highest tertile had a lower risk of ALS at an age of 55 years and below (range of HRs: 0.47-0.73).Conclusions: Physical fitness, BMI, IQ and stress resilience in young adulthood might be associated with the development of ALS at an early age.
  • Aked, Joseph, et al. (författare)
  • Survival, causes of death and recurrence up to 3 years after stroke : A population-based study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1351-5101. ; 28:12, s. 4060-4068
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Up-to-date population-based information about long-term survival, causes of death and recurrence after stroke is needed. Methods: Four hundred consecutive individuals in a population-based cohort of first-ever stroke between 2015 and 2016 in Lund, Sweden, were followed up to 3 years regarding (i) survival (Swedish Population Register); (ii) causes of death (Swedish Causes of Death Register); and (iii) stroke recurrence (interview and medical chart review). Index and recurrent ischaemic stroke cases were classified using the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) and Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project; and comorbidities were classified using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Cox regression was used to determine predictors for 3-year mortality. Survival rates were compared with three local studies over a 30-year timespan. Results: Amongst 400 first-ever stroke patients, 265 (66%) survived 3 years post-stroke. Age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.11), stroke severity (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.08–1.13) and comorbidities (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.22–1.53) were independently related to 3-year mortality. Amongst index ischaemic stroke patients, survival was lowest amongst those with cardio-aortic embolism (51/91; 56%). Cerebrovascular disease (54/135; 40%) and ischaemic heart disease (25/135; 19%) were the most common causes of death. Within 3 years, 30 (8%) had recurrent stroke. Amongst patients with index ischaemic stroke, 16/29 (55%) had a different TOAST pathogenetic mechanism or hemorrhagic stroke upon recurrence. Stroke survival improved between 1983–1985 and 2015–2016 (p = 0.002), but no significant change was observed between 2001–2002 and 2015–2016 (p = 0.48). Conclusions: Stroke survival rates are relatively high, but their improvement over recent decades may be slowing down, possibly due to the composition of the first-ever stroke population. The common occurrence of changed pathogenetic mechanisms between first-ever and recurrent stroke highlights the value of reassessment in recurrent stroke.
  • Amirkhani, Ardeshir, et al. (författare)
  • Interferon-beta affects the tryptophan metabolism in multiple sclerosis patients
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 12:8, s. 625-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tryptophan and its metabolites are of great interest in understanding the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The total levels of tryptophan and its metabolites, kynurenine and kynurenic acid were determined in plasma by capillary liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the plasma levels of these analytes in healthy controls and relapsing-remitting MS patients receiving long-term and acute interferon-beta (IFN-beta) treatment. Twenty-four hours post-administration increased kynurenine levels (first IFN MS versus healthy, P = 0.042) and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (K/T; first IFN MS versus healthy, P =0.027; first IFN MS versus long-term IFN MS, P = 0.036) were found. The long-term IFN MS group had higher K/T ratios at 4 and 12 h post-administration (P = 0.015 and 0.009, respectively). The increase of K/T ratio in the first IFN MS group indicate an induction of the enzyme indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), as reported earlier in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. As IDO is participating in both inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, further knowledge of its involvement in the pathogenesis of MS is of great importance.
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