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1.
  • Johansson, T, et al. (författare)
  • Decadal vegetation changes in a northern peatland, greenhouse gas fluxes and net radiative forcing
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 12:12, s. 2352-2369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thawing permafrost in the sub-Arctic has implications for the physical stability and biological dynamics of peatland ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of how permafrost thawing and subsequent vegetation changes in a sub-Arctic Swedish mire have changed the net exchange of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 over the past three decades. Images of the mire (ca. 17 ha) and surroundings taken with film sensitive in the visible and the near infrared portion of the spectrum, [i.e. colour infrared (CIR) aerial photographs from 1970 and 2000] were used. The results show that during this period the area covered by hummock vegetation decreased by more than 11% and became replaced by wet-growing plant communities. The overall net uptake of C in the vegetation and the release of C by heterotrophic respiration might have increased resulting in increases in both the growing season atmospheric CO2 sink function with about 16% and the CH4 emissions with 22%. Calculating the flux as CO2 equivalents show that the mire in 2000 has a 47% greater radiative forcing on the atmosphere using a 100-year time horizon. Northern peatlands in areas with thawing sporadic or discontinuous permafrost are likely to act as larger greenhouse gas sources over the growing season today than a few decades ago because of increased CH4 emissions.
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2.
  • Kokfelt, U, et al. (författare)
  • Ecosystem responses to increased precipitation and permafrost decay in subarctic Sweden inferred from peat and lake sediments
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 15:7, s. 1652-1663
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent accelerated decay of discontinuous permafrost at the Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden has been attributed to increased temperature and snow depth, and has caused expansion of wet minerotrophic areas leading to significant changes in carbon cycling in the mire. In order to track these changes through time and evaluate potential forcing mechanisms, this paper analyses a peat succession and a lake sediment sequence from within the mire, providing a record for the last 100 years, and compares these with monitored climate and active layer thickness data. The peat core was analysed for testate amoebae to reconstruct changes in peatland surface moisture conditions and water table fluctuations. The lake sediment core was analysed by near infrared spectroscopy to infer changes in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the lake-water, and changes in δ13C and C, N and δ15N to track changes in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool and the influence of diagenetic effects on sediment organic matter, respectively. Results showed that major shifts towards increased peat surface moisture and TOC concentration of the lake-water occurred around 1980, one to two decades earlier than a temperature driven increase in active layer thickness. Comparison with monitored temperature and precipitation from a nearby climate station indicates that this change in peat surface moisture is related to June–September (JJAS) precipitation and that the increase in lake-water TOC concentration reflects an increase in total annual precipitation. A significant depletion in 13C of sediment organic matter in the early 1980s probably reflects the effect of a single or a few consecutive years with anomalously high summer precipitation, resulting in elevated DIC content of the lake water, predominantly originating from increased export and subsequent respiration of organic carbon from the mire. Based on these results, it was not possible to link proxy data obtained on peat and lake-sediment records directly to permafrost decay. Instead our data indicate that increased precipitation and anomalously high rainfall during summers had a significant impact on the mire and the adjacent lake ecosystem. We therefore propose that effects of increased precipitation should be considered when evaluating potential forcing mechanisms of recent changes in carbon cycling in the subarctic.
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3.
  • Lindroth, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Storms can cause Europe-wide reduction in forest carbon sink
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 15:2, s. 346-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Disturbance of ecosystems is a major factor in regional carbon budgets, and it is believed to be partly responsible for the large inter-annual variability of the terrestrial part of the carbon balance. Forest fires have so far been considered as the most important disturbance but also other forms of disturbance such as insect outbreaks or wind-throw might contribute significantly to the largely unexplained inter-annual variability, at least in specific regions. The effect of wind-throw has not yet been estimated because of lack of data on how carbon fluxes are affected. The Gudrun storm, which hit Sweden in January 2005, resulted in ca. 66 million m(3) of wind-thrown stem wood on an area of ca. 272 000 ha. Using a model (BIOME-BGC) calibrated to CO2 flux measurements at two sites, the annual net ecosystem productivity during the first year after the storm was estimated to be in the range -897 to -1259 g C m(-2) yr(-1). This is a much higher loss compared with harvested (clear-cut) forests in Europe, which ranged between ca. -420 and -100 g m(-2) yr(-1). The reduction in the carbon sink scaled to the whole wind-thrown area was estimated at ca. 3 million tons C during the first year. By historical data on wind-throw in Europe combined with modelling, we estimated that the large Lothar storm in 1999 reduced the European carbon balance by ca. 16 million tons C, this is ca. 30% of the net biome production in Europe. We conclude that the impact of increased forest damage by more frequent storms in future climate change scenarios must be considered and that intermittent large wind-throw events may explain a part of the large inter-annual variability in the terrestrial carbon sink.
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4.
  • Mills, Gina, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence of widespread effects of ozone on crops and (semi-)natural vegetation in Europe (1990 - 2006) in relation to AOT40 - and flux-based risk maps
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - 1365-2486 .- 1354-1013. ; 17:1, s. 592-613
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Records of effects of ambient ozone pollution on vegetation have been compiled for Europe for the years 1990–2006. Sources include scientific papers, conference proceedings, reports to research funders, records of confirmed ozone injury symptoms and an international biomonitoring experiment coordinated by the ICP Vegetation. The latter involved ozone-sensitive (NC-S) and ozone-resistant (NC-R) biotypes of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown according to a common protocol and monitored for ozone injury and biomass differences in 17 European countries, from 1996 to 2006. Effects were separated into visible injury or growth/yield reduction. Of the 644 records of visible injury, 39% were for crops (27 species), 38.1% were for (semi-) natural vegetation (95 species) and 22.9% were for shrubs (49 species). Owing to inconsistencies in reporting effort from year to year it was not possible to determine geographical or temporal trends in the data. Nevertheless, this study has shown effects in ambient air in 18 European countries from Sweden in the north to Greece in the south. These effects data were superimposed on AOT40 (accumulated ozone concentrations over 40 ppb) and POD3gen (modelled accumulated stomatal flux over a threshold of 3 nmol m−2 s−1) maps generated by the EMEP Eulerian model (50 km × 50 km grid) that were parameterized for a generic crop based on wheat and NC-S/NC-R white clover. Many effects were found in areas where the AOT40 (crops) was below the critical level of 3 ppm h. In contrast, the majority of effects were detected in grid squares where POD3gen (crops) were in the mid-high range (>12 mmol m−2). Overall, maps based on POD3gen provided better fit to the effects data than those based on AOT40, with the POD3gen model for clover fitting the clover effects data better than that for a generic crop.
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5.
  • Nilsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Contemporary carbon accumulation in a boreal oligotrophic minerogenic mire - a significant sink after accounting for all C-fluxes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 14:10, s. 2317-2332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Based on theories of mire development and responses to a changing climate, the current role of mires as a net carbon sink has been questioned. A rigorous evaluation of the current net C-exchange in mires requires measurements of all relevant fluxes. Estimates of annual total carbon budgets in mires are still very limited. Here, we present a full carbon budget over 2 years for a boreal minerogenic oligotrophic mire in northern Sweden (64 degrees 11'N, 19 degrees 33'E). Data on the following fluxes were collected: land-atmosphere CO2 exchange (continuous Eddy covariance measurements) and CH4 exchange (static chambers during the snow free period); TOC (total organic carbon) in precipitation; loss of TOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CH4 through stream water runoff (continuous discharge measurements and regular C-concentration measurements). The mire constituted a net sink of 27 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD) g C m(-2) yr(-1) during 2004 and 20 +/- 3.4 g C m(-2) yr(-1) during 2005. This could be partitioned into an annual surface-atmosphere CO2 net uptake of 55 +/- 1.9 g C m(-2) yr(-1) during 2004 and 48 +/- 1.6 g C m(-2) yr(-1) during 2005. The annual NEE was further separated into a net uptake season, with an uptake of 92 g C m(-2) yr(-1) during 2004 and 86 g C m(-2) yr(-1) during 2005, and a net loss season with a loss of 37 g C m(-2) yr(-1) during 2004 and 38 g C m(-2) yr(-1) during 2005. Of the annual net CO2-C uptake, 37% and 31% was lost through runoff (with runoff TOC > DIC >> CH4) and 16% and 29% through methane emission during 2004 and 2005, respectively. This mire is still a significant C-sink, with carbon accumulation rates comparable to the long-term Holocene C-accumulation, and higher than the C-accumulation during the late Holocene in the region.
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6.
  • Norkko, J., et al. (författare)
  • A welcome can of worms? Hypoxia mitigation by an invasive species
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 18:2, s. 422-434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Invasive species and bottom-water hypoxia both constitute major global threats to the diversity and integrity of marine ecosystems. These stressors may interact with unexpected consequences, as invasive species that require an initial environmental disturbance to become established can subsequently become important drivers of ecological change. There is recent evidence that improved bottom-water oxygen conditions in coastal areas of the northern Baltic Sea coincide with increased abundances of the invasive polychaetes Marenzelleria spp. Using a reactive-transport model, we demonstrate that the long-term bioirrigation activities of dense Marenzelleria populations have a major impact on sedimentary phosphorus dynamics. This may facilitate the switch from a seasonally hypoxic system back to a normoxic system by reducing the potential for sediment-induced eutrophication in the upper water column. In contrast to short-term laboratory experiments, our simulations, which cover a 10-year period, show that Marenzelleria has the potential to enhance long-term phosphorus retention in muddy sediments. Over time bioirrigation leads to a substantial increase in the iron-bound phosphorus content of sediments while reducing the concentration of labile organic carbon. As surface sediments are maintained oxic, iron oxyhydroxides are able to persist and age into more refractory forms. The model illustrates mechanisms through which Marenzelleria can act as a driver of ecological change, although hypoxic disturbance or natural population declines in native species may be needed for them to initially become established. Invasive species are generally considered to have a negative impact; however, we show here that one of the main recent invaders in the Baltic Sea may provide important ecosystem services. This may be of particular importance in low-diversity systems, where disturbances may dramatically alter ecosystem services due to low functional redundancy. Thus, an environmental problem in one region may be either exacerbated or alleviated by a single species from another region, with potentially ecosystem-wide consequences.
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7.
  • Ellison, David, et al. (författare)
  • On the forest cover-water yield debate : from demand- to supply-side thinking
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 18:3, s. 806-820
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several major articles from the past decade and beyond conclude the impact of reforestation or afforestation on water yield is negative: additional forest cover will reduce and removing forests will raise downstream water availability. A second group of authors argue the opposite: planting additional forests should raise downstream water availability and intensify the hydrologic cycle. Obtaining supporting evidence for this second group of authors has been more difficult due to the larger scales at which the positive effects of forests on the water cycle may be seen. We argue that forest cover is inextricably linked to precipitation. Forest-driven evapotranspiration removed from a particular catchment contributes to the availability of atmospheric moisture vapor and its cross-continental transport, raising the likelihood of precipitation events and increasing water yield, in particular in continental interiors more distant from oceans. Seasonal relationships heighten the importance of this phenomenon. We review the arguments from different scales and perspectives. This clarifies the generally beneficial relationship between forest cover and the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. While evidence supports both sides of the argument trees can reduce runoff at the small catchment scale at larger scales, trees are more clearly linked to increased precipitation and water availability. Progressive deforestation, land conversion from forest to agriculture and urbanization have potentially negative consequences for global precipitation, prompting us to think of forest ecosystems as global public goods. Policy-making attempts to measure product water footprints, estimate the value of ecosystem services, promote afforestation, develop drought mitigation strategies and otherwise manage land use must consider the linkage of forests to the supply of precipitation.
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8.
  • Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A., et al. (författare)
  • Nitrogen deposition induced changes in DOC:NO3-N ratios determine the efficiency of nitrate removal from freshwaters
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 16:8, s. 2358-2365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With a unique data set comprising 1041 boreal forested and low human impacted lakes included in three Swedish lake inventories for 1995, 2000 and 2005 and with time series for 12 of the lakes from 1988 to 2008 we show that nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) is accumulated in freshwaters along with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep). At the same time we observe decreasing DOC : NO3-N ratios in the water column. We suggest that NO3-N is accumulated in freshwaters when denitrifying bacteria are limited by their energy source rather than the availability of NO3-N, i.e. at low DOC : NO3-N ratios. We obtained further support for a close relationship between Ndep driven DOC : NO3-N ratios and the efficiency of nitrate removal by using a published global data set on measured nitrate removal rates in unproductive reference streams. Owing to the currently decreasing Ndep in large regions of, for instance, Northern Europe, this process is now reversed, resulting in increasing DOC : NO3-N ratios and more efficient nitrate removal from freshwaters. Depending on NOx emissions, nitrogen limited regions may expand with an immediate effect on nitrate concentrations in freshwaters.
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9.
  • Weyhenmeyer, Gesa, et al. (författare)
  • Nitrogen deposition induced changes in DOC:NO3-N ratios determine the efficiency of nitrate removal from freshwaters
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 16, s. 2358-2365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With a unique data set comprising 1041 boreal forested and low human impacted lakes included in three Swedish lake inventories for 1995, 2000 and 2005 and with time series for 12 of the lakes from 1988 to 2008 we show that nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) is accumulated in freshwaters along with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition (N-dep). At the same time we observe decreasing DOC : NO3-N ratios in the water column. We suggest that NO3-N is accumulated in freshwaters when denitrifying bacteria are limited by their energy source rather than the availability of NO3-N, i.e. at low DOC : NO3-N ratios. We obtained further support for a close relationship between N-dep driven DOC : NO3-N ratios and the efficiency of nitrate removal by using a published global data set on measured nitrate removal rates in unproductive reference streams. Owing to the currently decreasing N-dep in large regions of, for instance, Northern Europe, this process is now reversed, resulting in increasing DOC : NO3-N ratios and more efficient nitrate removal from freshwaters. Depending on NOx emissions, nitrogen limited regions may expand with an immediate effect on nitrate concentrations in freshwaters.
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10.
  • Wikner, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Increased freshwater discharge shifts the trophic balance in the coastal zone of the northern Baltic Sea
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 18:8, s. 2509-2519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased precipitation is one projected outcome of climate change that may enhance the discharge of freshwater to the coastal zone. The resulting lower salinity, and associated discharge of both nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, may influence food web functioning. The scope of this study was to determine the net outcome of increased freshwater discharge on the balance between auto- and heterotrophic processes in the coastal zone. By using long-term ecological time series data covering 13 similar to years, we show that increased river discharge suppresses phytoplankton biomass production and shifts the carbon flow towards microbial heterotrophy. A 76% increase in freshwater discharge resulted in a 2.2 times higher ratio of bacterio- to phytoplankton production (Pb:Pp). The level of Pb:Pp is a function of riverine total organic carbon supply to the coastal zone. This is mainly due to the negative effect of freshwater and total organic carbon discharge on phytoplankton growth, despite a concomitant increase in discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus. With a time lag of 2 similar to years the bacterial production recovered after an initial decline, further synergistically elevating the microbial heterotrophy. Current climate change projections suggesting increased precipitation may therefore lead to increased microbial heterotrophy, thereby decreasing the transfer efficiency of biomass to higher trophic levels. This prognosis would suggest reduced fish production and lower sedimentation rates of phytoplankton, a factor of detriment to benthic fauna. Our findings show that discharge of freshwater and total organic carbon significantly contributes to the balance of coastal processes at large spatial and temporal scales, and that model's would be greatly augmented by the inclusion of these environmental drivers as regulators of coastal productivity.
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