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  • Hovey, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Antisocial behavior and polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene: findings in two independent samples.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - Stockholm : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires-Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)-designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10(-7) in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10(-5). Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one potential target in the treatment of aggressive antisocial behavior.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 22 September 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.144.
  • Pettersson, E., et al. (författare)
  • Common psychiatric disorders share the same genetic origin : a multivariate sibling study of the Swedish population
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - New York, USA : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 21:5, s. 717-721
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies have shown that different mental-health problems appear to be partly influenced by the same set of genes, which can be summarized by a general genetic factor. To date, such studies have relied on surveys of community-based samples, which could introduce potential biases. The goal of this study was to examine whether a general genetic factor would still emerge when based on a different ascertainment method with different biases from previous studies. We targeted all adults in Sweden (n=3 475 112) using national registers and identified those who had received one or more psychiatric diagnoses after seeking or being forced into mental health care. In order to examine the genetic versus environmental etiology of the general factor, we examined whether participants' full- or half-siblings had also received diagnoses. We focused on eight major psychiatric disorders based on the International Classification of Diseases, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol use disorder and drug abuse. In addition, we included convictions of violent crimes. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that a general genetic factor influenced all disorders and convictions of violent crimes, accounting for between 10% (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and 36% (drug abuse) of the variance of the conditions. Thus, a general genetic factor of psychopathology emerges when based on both surveys as well as national registers, indicating that a set of pleiotropic genes influence a variety of psychiatric disorders.
  • Abe, C., et al. (författare)
  • Mania-related effects on structural brain changes in bipolar disorder - a narrative review of the evidence
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies show that bipolar disorder is associated with structural brain abnormalities, predominantly observed in prefrontal and temporal cortex, cingulate gyrus, and subcortical regions. However, longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate whether these abnormalities presage disease onset or are consequences of disease processes, and to identify potential contributing factors. Here, we narratively review and summarize longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging studies that relate imaging outcomes to manic episodes. First, we conclude that longitudinal brain imaging studies suggest an association of bipolar disorder with aberrant brain changes, including both deviant decreases and increases in morphometric measures. Second, we conclude that manic episodes have been related to accelerated cortical volume and thickness decreases, with the most consistent findings occurring in prefrontal brain areas. Importantly, evidence also suggests that in contrast to healthy controls, who in general show age-related cortical decline, brain metrics remain stable or increase during euthymic periods in bipolar disorder patients, potentially reflecting structural recovering mechanisms. The findings stress the importance of preventing manic episodes. We further propose a model of prefrontal cortical trajectories in relation to the occurrence of manic episodes. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms at play, remaining limitations, and future directions.
  • Alic, I., et al. (författare)
  • Patient-specific Alzheimer-like pathology in trisomy 21 cerebral organoids reveals BACE2 as a gene dose-sensitive AD suppressor in human brain
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:10, s. 5766-5788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A population of more than six million people worldwide at high risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are those with Down Syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy 21 (T21)), 70% of whom develop dementia during lifetime, caused by an extra copy of beta-amyloid-(A beta)-precursor-protein gene. We report AD-like pathology in cerebral organoids grown in vitro from non-invasively sampled strands of hair from 71% of DS donors. The pathology consisted of extracellular diffuse and fibrillar A beta deposits, hyperphosphorylated/pathologically conformed Tau, and premature neuronal loss. Presence/absence of AD-like pathology was donor-specific (reproducible between individual organoids/iPSC lines/experiments). Pathology could be triggered in pathology-negative T21 organoids by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated elimination of the third copy of chromosome 21 gene BACE2, but prevented by combined chemical beta and gamma-secretase inhibition. We found that T21 organoids secrete increased proportions of A beta-preventing (A beta 1-19) and A beta-degradation products (A beta 1-20 and A beta 1-34). We show these profiles mirror in cerebrospinal fluid of people with DS. We demonstrate that this protective mechanism is mediated by BACE2-trisomy and cross-inhibited by clinically trialled BACE1 inhibitors. Combined, our data prove the physiological role of BACE2 as a dose-sensitive AD-suppressor gene, potentially explaining the dementia delay in similar to 30% of people with DS. We also show that DS cerebral organoids could be explored as pre-morbid AD-risk population detector and a system for hypothesis-free drug screens as well as identification of natural suppressor genes for neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Amare, A. T., et al. (författare)
  • Association of polygenic score for major depression with response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lithium is a first-line medication for bipolar disorder (BD), but only one in three patients respond optimally to the drug. Since evidence shows a strong clinical and genetic overlap between depression and bipolar disorder, we investigated whether a polygenic susceptibility to major depression is associated with response to lithium treatment in patients with BD. Weighted polygenic scores (PGSs) were computed for major depression (MD) at different GWAS p value thresholds using genetic data obtained from 2586 bipolar patients who received lithium treatment and took part in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi(+)Gen) study. Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies in MD (135,458 cases and 344,901 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) were used for PGS weighting. Response to lithium treatment was defined by continuous scores and categorical outcome (responders versus non-responders) using measurements on the Alda scale. Associations between PGSs of MD and lithium treatment response were assessed using a linear and binary logistic regression modeling for the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. The analysis was performed for the entire cohort, and for European and Asian sub-samples. The PGSs for MD were significantly associated with lithium treatment response in multi-ethnic, European or Asian populations, at various p value thresholds. Bipolar patients with a low polygenic load for MD were more likely to respond well to lithium, compared to those patients with high polygenic load [lowest vs highest PGS quartiles, multi-ethnic sample: OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01) and European sample: OR = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.30-2.36)]. While our analysis in the Asian sample found equivalent effect size in the same direction: OR = 1.71 (95% CI: 0.61-4.90), this was not statistically significant. Using PGS decile comparison, we found a similar trend of association between a high genetic loading for MD and lower response to lithium. Our findings underscore the genetic contribution to lithium response in BD and support the emerging concept of a lithium-responsive biotype in BD.
  • , amudyata, et al. (författare)
  • SARS-CoV-2 promotes microglial synapse elimination in human brain organoids
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 27:10, s. 3939-3950
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in both the acute and post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. In a newly established brain organoid model with innately developing microglia, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection initiate neuronal cell death and cause a loss of post-synaptic termini. Despite limited neurotropism and a decelerating viral replication, we observe a threefold increase in microglial engulfment of postsynaptic termini after SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We define the microglial responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection by single cell transcriptomic profiling and observe an upregulation of interferon-responsive genes as well as genes promoting migration and synapse engulfment. To a large extent, SARS-CoV-2 exposed microglia adopt a transcriptomic profile overlapping with neurodegenerative disorders that display an early synapse loss as well as an increased incident risk after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our results reveal that brain organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2 display disruption in circuit integrity via microglia-mediated synapse elimination and identifies a potential novel mechanism contributing to cognitive impairments in patients recovering from COVID-19.
  • Andersson, Evelyn, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of response to cognitive behavior therapy in adults with major depression : a preliminary report
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 24:4, s. 484-490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder is heritable and a leading cause of disability. Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective treatment for major depression. By quantifying genetic risk scores based on common genetic variants, the aim of this report was to explore the utility of psychiatric and cognitive trait genetic risk scores, for predicting the response of 894 adults with major depressive disorder to cognitive behavior therapy. The participants were recruited in a psychiatric setting, and the primary outcome score was measured using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale-Self Rated. Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays were used to calculate the genomic risk scores based on large genetic studies of six phenotypes: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, intelligence, and educational attainment. Linear mixed-effect models were used to test the relationships between the six genetic risk scores and cognitive behavior therapy outcome. Our analyses yielded one significant interaction effect (B = 0.09, p < 0.001): the autism spectrum disorder genetic risk score correlated with Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale-Self Rated changes during treatment, and the higher the autism spectrum disorder genetic load, the less the depressive symptoms decreased over time. The genetic risk scores for the other psychiatric and cognitive traits were not related to depressive symptom severity or change over time. Our preliminary results indicated, as expected, that the genomics of the response of patients with major depression to cognitive behavior therapy were complex and that future efforts should aim to maximize sample size and limit subject heterogeneity in order to gain a better understanding of the use of genetic risk factors to predict treatment outcome.
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