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  • Latvala, Antti, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive ability and risk for substance misuse in men : genetic and environmental correlations in a longitudinal nation-wide family study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - Stockholm : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0965-2140 .- 1360-0443. ; 111:10, s. 1814-1822
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To investigate the association in males between cognitive ability in late adolescence and subsequent substance misuse-related events, and to study the underlying genetic and environmental correlations.Design: A population-based longitudinal study with three different family-based designs. Cox proportional hazards models were conducted to investigate the association at the individual level. Bivariate quantitative genetic modelling in (1) full brothers and maternal half-brothers, (2) full brothers reared together and apart and (3) monozygotic and dizygotic twin brothers was used to estimate genetic and environmental correlations.Setting: Register-based study in Sweden.Participants: The full sample included 1 402 333 Swedish men born 1958-91 and conscripted at mean age 18.2 [standard deviation (SD) = 0.5] years. A total of 1 361 066 men who had no substance misuse events before cognitive assessment at mandatory military conscription were included in the Cox regression models, with a follow-up time of up to 35.6 years.Measures Cognitive ability was assessed at conscription with the Swedish Enlistment Battery. Substance misuse events included alcohol- and drug-related court convictions, medical treatments and deaths, available from governmental registries.Findings: Lower cognitive ability in late adolescence predicted an increased risk for substance misuse events [hazard ratio (HR) for a 1-stanine unit decrease in cognitive ability: 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-1.30]. The association was somewhat attenuated within clusters of full brothers (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.20-1.23). Quantitative genetic analyses indicated that the association was due primarily to genetic influences; the genetic correlations ranged between -0.39 (95% CI = -0.45, -0.34) and -0.52 (95% CI -0.55, -0.48) in the three different designs.Conclusions: Shared genetic influences appear to underlie the association between low cognitive ability and subsequent risk for substance misuse events among Swedish men.
  • Ahacic, Kozma, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in sobriety in the Swedish population over three decades : age, period or cohort effects?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - Abingdon : Carfax. - 0965-2140 .- 1360-0443. ; 107:4, s. 748-755
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: This study aimed to examine age, cohort and period trends in alcohol abstinence.Design: Two surveys, the Level of Living Survey collected in 1968, 1974, 1981, 1990 and 2000, and the Swedish Panel Study of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) collected in 1992 and 2002, were studied with graphical depictions of cross-sectional and longitudinal data presented over time and over age. Cross-sectional 10-year age group differences, time-lag differences between waves and within-cohort differences between waves for 10-year birth cohorts were examined. Logistic regression models were applied to confirm the observed patterns.Setting: The samples were representative of the Swedish population.Participants: Participants ranged in age from 18 to 75 (n = 5000 per wave), and 77+ at later waves (n = 500).Measurements: Alcohol abstinence was determined by asking 'Do you ever drink wine, beer, or spirits?', where a 'no' response indicated abstinence.Findings: Decreases in abstinence rates were observed from 1968 to 2000/02. While cross-sectional analysis indicated increased abstinence with advancing age, the longitudinal analysis suggested otherwise. Inspection of cohort differences revealed little change within cohorts and large differences between cohorts; abstinence rates declined in later-born cohorts up to the 1940s birth cohorts; stability was observed in cohorts born since the 1940s. Logistic regression models indicated that neither age nor period were significant (P > 0.05) predictors of abstinence when cohort (P < 0.001) was included.Conclusion: Decreasing proportions of total alcohol abstainers in Sweden from 1968 to 2000 appear to be attributable primarily to decreases in successive cohorts rather than drinkers becoming abstainers.
  • Rehm, J., et al. (författare)
  • Addiction Research Centres and the Nurturing of Creativity. Substance abuse research in a modern health care centre : the case of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - 0965-2140 .- 1360-0443. ; 106:4, s. 689-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health is one of the premier centres for research related to substance use and addiction. This research began more than 50 years ago with the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF), an organization that contributed significantly to knowledge about the aetiology, treatment and prevention of substance use, addiction and related harm. After the merger of the ARF with three other institutions in 1998, research on substance use continued, with an additional focus on comorbid substance use and other mental health disorders. In the present paper, we describe the structure of funding and organization and selected current foci of research. We argue for the continuation of this successful model of integrating basic, epidemiological, clinical, health service and prevention research under the roof of a health centre.
  • Babor, T., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol : No Ordinary Commodity – a summary of the second edition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - 0965-2140 .- 1360-0443. ; 105:5, s. 769-779
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article summarizes the contents of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity (2nd edn). The first part of the book describes why alcohol is not an ordinary commodity, and reviews epidemiological data that establish alcohol as a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. This section also documents how international beer and spirits production has been consolidated recently by a small number of global corporations that are expanding their operations in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the second part of the book, the scientific evidence for strategies and interventions that can prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm is reviewed critically in seven key areas: pricing and taxation, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, drink-driving countermeasures, restrictions on marketing, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services. Finally, the book addresses the policy-making process at the local, national and international levels and provides ratings of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions from a public health perspective. Overall, the strongest, most cost-effective strategies include taxation that increases prices, restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol, drink-driving countermeasures, brief interventions with at risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence.
  • Laslett, A.-M., et al. (författare)
  • Surveying the range and magnitude of alcohol's harm to others in Australia
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - 0965-2140 .- 1360-0443. ; 106:9, s. 1603-1611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims  This study aims to document the adverse effects of drinkers in Australia on people other than the drinker. Design  Cross-sectional survey. Setting  In a national survey of Australia, respondents described the harmful effects they experienced from drinkers in their households, family and friendship networks, as well as work-place and community settings. Participants  A randomly selected sample of 2649 adult Australians. Measurements  Problems experienced because of others' drinking were ascertained via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Respondent and drinker socio-demographic and drinking pattern data were recorded. Findings  A total of 70% of respondents were affected by strangers' drinking and experienced nuisance, fear or abuse, and 30% reported that the drinking of someone close to them had negative effects, although only 11% were affected by such a person ‘a lot’. Women were more affected by someone they knew in the household or family, while men were more affected by strangers, friends and co-workers. Young adults were consistently the most negatively affected across the majority of types of harm. Conclusions  Substantial proportions of Australians are affected by other people's drinking, including that of their families, friends, co-workers and strangers. These harms range in magnitude from noise and fear to physical abuse, sexual coercion and social isolation.
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