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  • Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • The SELMA study : a birth cohort study in Sweden following more than 2000 mother-child pairs
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - Hoboken, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 26:5, s. 456-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:  This paper describes the background, aim and study design for the Swedish SELMA study that aimed to investigate the importance of early life exposure during pregnancy and infancy to environmental factors with a major focus on endocrine disrupting chemicals for multiple chronic diseases/disorders in offspring.Methods: The cohort was established by recruiting women in the 10th week of pregnancy. Blood and urine from the pregnant women and the child and air and dust from home environment from pregnancy and infancy period have been collected. Questionnaires were used to collect information on life styles, socio-economic status, living conditions, diet and medical history.Results: Of the 8394 reported pregnant women, 6658 were invited to participate in the study. Among the invited women, 2582 (39%) agreed to participate. Of the 4076 (61%) non-participants, 2091 women were invited to a non-respondent questionnaire in order to examine possible selection bias. We found a self-selection bias in the established cohort when compared with the non-participant group, e.g. participating families did smoke less (14% vs. 19%), had more frequent asthma and allergy symptoms in the family (58% vs. 38%), as well as higher education among the mothers (51% vs. 36%) and more often lived in single-family houses (67% vs. 60%).Conclusions: These findings indicate that the participating families do not fully represent the study population and thus, the exposure in this population. However, there is no obvious reason that this selection bias will have an impact on identification of environmental risk factors.
  • Eising, Stefanie, et al. (författare)
  • Type 1 diabetes risk analysis on dried blood spot samples from population-based newborns: design and feasibility of an unselected case-control study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 21:6, s. 507-517
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) may be triggered pre- or perinatally by multiple factors. Identifying new predisposing T1D markers or combinations of markers in a large, well-characterised case-control collection may be important for future T1D prevention. The present work describes the design and feasibility of a large and unselected case-control study, which will define and evaluate prediction criteria for T1D at the time of birth. Danish registries (Biological Specimen Bank for Neonatal Screening, and the National Discharge Registry) made it possible to identify and collect dried blood spots (DBS) from newborns who later developed T1D (cases) born 1981-2002. DBS samples from 2086 cases and two matching control subjects per case were analysed for genetic and immune factors that are associated with T1D: (a) candidate genes (HLA, INS and CTLA4), (b) cytokines and inflammatory markers, (c) islet auto-antibodies (GAD65A, IA-2A). The objective of the study was to define reliable prediction tools for T1D using samples available at the time of birth. In a unique approach, the study linked a large unselected and population-based sample resource to well-ascertained clinical databases and advanced technology. It combined genetic, immunological and demographic data to develop prediction algorithms. It also provided a resource for future studies in which new genetic markers can be included as they are identified.
  • Li, Xinjun, et al. (författare)
  • Parental occupation and preterm births: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 24:6, s. 555-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hypothesis was that some occupations could lead to preterm birth (PTB) because of potential exposures to various agents. The objective in this nationwide follow-up study was to analyse the association between PTB and parental occupational groups, controlling for potential confounders. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, in which all children born in Sweden from 1990 onward are registered with their parents, were linked to census data. Inclusion criteria for the study population were employment (both women and men) and age >20 years (women). There were 816,743 first singleton live births from 1990 to 2004, of whom 43,956 were PTBs. A total of 7659 of the 43,956 PTBs were very PTBs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated separately for mothers and fathers to estimate the odds of PTB and very PTB in 51 occupational groups (reference groups: mothers or fathers who were 'Technical, science research-related workers and physicians') and by family income level. Women and men with low family incomes had increased ORs of PTB and very PTB. Significantly increased ORs of PTB (including very PTB) were found in four maternal and nine paternal occupational groups after accounting for family income, geographic region of residence, civil status, smoking habits, maternal age at infant's birth and period of birth. Further studies should examine specific agents in those parental occupations that were associated with increased odds of PTB and very PTB.
  • Lilja, Monica (författare)
  • School attainment of children who had a single umbilical artery at birth
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 24:2, s. 166-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • P>Lilja M. School attainment of children who had a single umbilical artery at birth. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 166-170. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first registry study of school achievements among children born with a single umbilical artery (SUA). A total of 1600 infants born with SUA during 1983-86 were studied. We linked the Swedish Medical Birth Registry with the Swedish School Registry, which contains the school grades of all children in Sweden when leaving compulsory school. Risks were estimated as odds ratios (OR) using the Mantel-Haenzel procedure, after adjustment for four potential confounders: year of birth, maternal age, parity and maternal education. There was a 60% excess of children born with SUA who did not complete compulsory school after removal of infants born preterm, small-for-gestational age and low Apgar score (OR = 1.60 [95% confidence interval 1.28, 2.00]). When sports and the three core school subjects (mathematics, English and Swedish) were studied, there was an increased risk for 'not passed' in all subjects except sport and a slight decrease in the probability of achieving 'passed with distinction or excellence'. In the three core subjects there was an association with gender, boys with SUA being more likely to have 'not passed' than girls. In conclusion the children born with SUA are more likely than children born with three vessels to show impaired school achievements.
  • Morken, Nils-Halvdan, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes of preterm children according to type of delivery onset: a nationwide population-based study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 21:5, s. 458-464
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of the study was to investigate whether spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm births are associated with different paediatric outcomes. A nationwide population-based study comprising 1 010 487 singletons used data from 1991 to 2001 from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. Intrauterine fetal deaths, unknown type of delivery onset and congenital malformations were excluded. Neonatal, perinatal and long-term neurological outcomes were studied. Spontaneous preterm births were compared with iatrogenic preterm births. Odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) for outcome variables were obtained using the Mantel-Haenszel technique and Cox analyses respectively. Adjustments were made for gestational age at birth, maternal age, parity and smoking. The preterm population consisted of 34 215 (73.2%) spontaneous preterm infants and 12 511 (26.8%) iatrogenic preterm infants. Spontaneous preterm infants were at increased risk of cerebral palsy at gestational age 28-31 weeks (HR: 1.86 [95% CI: 1.12, 3.10]), and of sepsis at gestational age 32-33 weeks (HR: 1.58 [95% CI: 1.28, 1.96]). Other outcome variables were associated with iatrogenic preterm birth, especially respiratory and gastrointestinal diagnoses. In conclusion, spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth are associated with different paediatric outcomes.
  • Zeitlin, J.A., et al. (författare)
  • Marital status, cohabitation, and the risk of preterm birth in Europe: where births outside marriage are common and uncommon.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 16:2, s. 124-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article explores whether the impact of marital status on the risk of preterm birth varies in relation to marital practices in the population, defined by the proportion of out-of-marriage births. Data come from a case–control study of the determinants of preterm birth in 16 European countries (5456 cases and 8234 controls). There is a significantly elevated risk of preterm birth associated with both cohabitation (OR = 1.29 [1.08, 1.55]) and single motherhood (OR = 1.61 [1.26, 2.07]) for women living in countries where fewer than 20% of births occur outside marriage. In contrast, there is no excess risk associated with marital status when out-of-marriage births are more common. This overall result does not apply to all subgroups of preterm births: different patterns emerge for early preterm births and preterm births induced for medical reasons. It is important to consider social context in the analysis of individual risk factors.
  • Haglund, Bengt (författare)
  • Birthweight distributions by gestational age : comparison of LMP-based and ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age using data from the Swedish Birth Registry
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 21, s. 72-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies based on data from the US have reported that the birthweight distribution at gestational age 28-31 weeks is bimodal with a second peak occurring at approximately 3300 g, suggesting that there is misclassification of term infants. In these studies, gestational ages were estimated from the date of the last menstrual period (LMP), and it has been suggested that ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age would eliminate the problem with bimodal birthweight distributions. Swedish data include both measures, thus offering an opportunity for comparison. All singleton births in Sweden from 1993 to 2002 with information on birthweight were included in the study (n = 917 901). Both LMP- and ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age were available for 75.1% of the births. Two possible sources of misclassification were considered: measurement error, assuming that ultrasound-based estimates are better, and data entry errors. An algorithm for assessment of data entry errors was developed; 67.4% of the births were left for the analyses of data 'cleaned' from data entry errors. Based on the entire study population, the LMP-based birthweight curves for lower-gestational-age preterm births were bimodal, with a second peak around 3500 g. The bimodal distribution was greatly attenuated when using ultrasound-based gestational age categories, but did not disappear. After cleaning the data, the LMP-based birthweight distributions for infants at gestational ages < 32 weeks were no longer bimodal, and were very similar to the ultrasound-based curves. In conclusion, data entry errors are more likely to cause the bimodality in the birthweight distribution among preterm infants than measurement errors in the LMP-based gestational age estimate.
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