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Sökning: L773:1383 5769 OR L773:1873 0329

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1.
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2.
  • Chaiyawong, Nattawat, et al. (författare)
  • Distinct effects on the secretion of MTRAP and AMA1 in Plasmodium yoelii following deletion of acylated pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Parasitology international. - 1383-5769 .- 1873-0329. ; 86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plasmodium, the causative agents of malaria, are obligate intracellular organisms. In humans, pathogenesis is caused by the blood stage parasite, which multiplies within erythrocytes, thus erythrocyte invasion is an essential developmental step. Merozoite form parasites released into the blood stream coordinately secrets a panel of proteins from the microneme secretory organelles for gliding motility, establishment of a tight junction with a target naive erythrocyte, and subsequent internalization. A protein identified in Toxoplasma gondii facilitates microneme fusion with the plasma membrane for exocytosis; namely, acylated pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein (APH). To obtain insight into the differential microneme discharge by malaria parasites, in this study we analyzed the consequences of APH deletion in the rodent malaria model, Plasmodium yoelii, using a DiCre-based inducible knockout method. We found that APH deletion resulted in a reduction in parasite asexual growth and erythrocyte invasion, with some parasites retaining the ability to invade and grow without APH. APH deletion impaired the secretion of microneme proteins, MTRAP and AMA1, and upon contact with erythrocytes the secretion of MTRAP, but not AMA1, was observed. APH-deleted merozoites were able to attach to and deform erythrocytes, consistent with the observed MTRAP secretion. Tight junctions were formed, but echinocytosis after merozoite internalization into erythrocytes was significantly reduced, consistent with the observed absence of AMA1 secretion. Together with our observation that APH largely colocalized with MTRAP, but less with AMA1, we propose that APH is directly involved in MTRAP secretion; whereas any role of APH in AMA1 secretion is indirect in Plasmodium.
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3.
  • Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular detection and characterization of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs from Cuba
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Parasitology international. - : Elsevier. - 1383-5769 .- 1873-0329. ; 80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Canine hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis is a worldwide distributed tick-borne disease of domestic and wild canids that is transmitted by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) ticks. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon infections in 80 stray dogs from Havana Province in Cuba, and to confirm the species identity and phylogenetic relationships of the causative agent. Samples were screened by microscopical examination of thin blood smears for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. gamonts and by genus-specific SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Direct microscopy examination revealed Hepatozoon gamonts in the peripheral blood of 8 dogs (10.0%; 95% CI: 4.80-18.0%), while 38 animals (47.5%; 95% CI: 36.8-58.4%) were PCR-positive, including all microscopically positive dogs. Hence, the agreement between the two detection methods was 'poor' (κ = 0.20). Hematological parameters did not differ significantly between PCR-positive and PCR-negative dogs (p > 0.05). The DNA sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of the Hepatozoon spp. from Cuban dogs showed a nucleotide identity >99% with those of 18S rRNA sequences of Hepatozoon canis isolates from Czech Republic, Brazil and Spain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that obtained sequences clustered within the Hepatozoon canis clade, different from the Hepatozoon felis or Hepatozoon americanum clades. The present study represents the first molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs within Cuba.
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4.
  • Ishizaki, Takahiro, et al. (författare)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulates secretion of apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) in Plasmodium yoelii
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Parasitology international. - : Elsevier. - 1383-5769 .- 1873-0329. ; 85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Malaria remains a heavy global burden on human health, and it is important to understand the molecular and cellular biology of the parasite to find targets for drug and vaccine development. The mouse malaria model is an essential tool to characterize the function of identified molecules; however, robust technologies for targeted gene deletions are still poorly developed for the widely used rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii. To overcome this problem, we established a DiCre-loxP inducible knockout (iKO) system in P. yoelii, which showed more than 80% excision efficacy of the target locus and more than 90% reduction of locus transcripts 24 h (one cell cycle) after RAP administration. Using this developed system, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAc) was inducibly disrupted and the phenotypes of the resulting PKAc-iKO parasites were analyzed. We found that PKAc-iKO parasites showed severe growth and erythrocyte invasion defects. We also found that disruption of PKAc impaired the secretion of AMA1 in P. yoelii, in contrast to a report showing no role of PKAc in AMA1 secretion in P. falciparum. This discrepancy may be related to the difference in the timing of AMA1 distribution to the merozoite surface, which occurs just after egress for P. falciparum, but after several minutes for P. yoelii. Secretions of PyEBL, Py235, and RON2 were not affected by the disruption of PKAc in P. yoelii. PyRON2 was already secreted to the merozoite surface immediately after merozoite egress, which is inconsistent with the current model that RON2 is injected into the erythrocyte cytosol. Further investigations are required to understand the role of RON2 exposed on the merozoite surface.
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5.
  • Ngotho, Maina, et al. (författare)
  • IL-10 is up regulated in early and transitional stages in vervet monkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brueei rhodesiense
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Parasitology international. - 1383-5769 .- 1873-0329. ; 55:4, s. 243-248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IL-10 has been suggested as a possible parameter for human African trypanosomiasis stage determination. However, conclusive experimental studies have not been carried out to evaluate this, which is a prerequisite before a potential test can be validated in humans for diagnostic purposes. We used the vervet monkey model of trypanosomiasis to scrutinize IL-10 in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Five adult males were experimentally infected with T.b. rhodesiense. The infected animals became anemic and exhibited weight loss. Parasitemia was patent after 3 days and fluctuated around 3.7 x 10(7) trypanosomes/ml throughout the experimental period. The total CSF white cell counts increased from pre-infection means around 3 cells/mu l to a peak of 30 cells/mu l, 42 days post-infection (DPI). IL-10 was not detectable (< 2 pg/ml) in serum prior to infection. IL-10 serum concentrations increased to 273 pg/ml 10 DPI coinciding with the first peak of parasitemia. Thereafter the levels declined to a mean value of 77 pg/ml 34 DPI followed by a significant rise to a second peak of 304 pg/ml (p < 0.008) 42 DPI. There was no detectable IL-10 in CSF. IL-10 synthesis is thus stimulated both in the early and transitional stages of experimental trypanosomiasis. That IL-10 is produced in early stage disease is an interesting finding unlikely to be detected in humans where it is difficult to determine the exact time of infection. The IL-10 peak observed on day 42 of infection might indicate onset of parasite neuroinvasion coinciding with a peak in white blood cell counts in the blood and CSF.
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6.
  • Petrelli, Riccardo, et al. (författare)
  • An overlooked horticultural crop, Smyrnium olusatrum, as a potential source of compounds effective against African trypanosomiasis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Parasitology international. - 1383-5769 .- 1873-0329. ; 66:2, s. 146-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among natural products, sesquiterpenes have shown promising inhibitory effects against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Smyrnium olusatrum (Apiaceae), also known as Alexanders or wild celery, is a neglected horticultural crop characterized by oxygenated sesquiterpenes containing a furan ring. In the present work we explored the potential of its essential oils obtained from different organs and the main oxygenated sesquiterpenes, namely isofuranodiene, germacrone and β-acetoxyfuranoeudesm-4(15)-ene, as inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei. All essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of parasite showing IC50 values of 1.9–4.0 μg/ml. Among the main essential oil constituents, isofuranodiene exhibited a significant and selective inhibitory activity against T. brucei (IC50 of 0.6 μg/ml, SI = 30), with β-acetoxyfuranoeudesm-4(15)-ene giving a moderate potentiating effect. These results shed light on the possible application of isofuranodiene as an antiprotozoal agent to be included in combination treatments aimed not only at curing patients but also at preventing the diffusion of HAT.
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7.
  • Shao, Yi Ta, et al. (författare)
  • Schistocephalus solidus infections increase gonadotropins and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH3) mRNA levels in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Parasitology international. - 1383-5769 .- 1873-0329. ; 61:3, s. 470-474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parasites often impair the reproduction of their hosts, one well known case being the cestode Schistocephalus solidus which is a common parasite in three-spined sticklebacks. Gasterosteus aculeatus. One of the possible ways that this could be exerted is by suppression on the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis. In this study, mRNA levels of FSH-beta and LH-beta and of GnRH2 (cGnRH II) and GnRH3 (sGnRH) were measured via Q-PCR in infected and uninfected fish sampled from the field a few weeks before the onset of breeding. The pituitary mRNA levels of both FSH-beta and LH-beta were higher in infected males than in uninfected males. Also in females, FSH-beta mRNA levels were higher in infected individuals than in others, whereas there was no significant difference found in LH-beta expression. Brain mRNA levels of GnRH3 were higher in infected fish than in uninfected fish in both sexes, but no difference was found in GnRH2 mRNA levels. Thus, infection by S. solidus was able to alter the expressions not only of gonadotropins (GtHs), but also of GnRH which has not been observed previously. However, the effects are opposite to what should be expected if the parasite suppressed reproduction via actions on the brain-pituitary level. The gonads are perhaps more likely to be impaired by the parasites in other ways, and changed feedbacks on the BPG axis could then lead to the increases in GtHs and GnRH.
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8.
  • Venegas, Juan A., et al. (författare)
  • Cloning and characterization of a DNA polymerase beta gene from Trypanosoma cruzi
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Parasitology international. - 1383-5769 .- 1873-0329. ; 58:2, s. 187-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A gene coding for a DNA polymerase beta from the Trypanosoma cruzi Miranda clone, belonging to the TcI lineage, was cloned (Miranda Tcpol beta), using the information from eight peptides of the T. cruzi beta-like DNA polymerase purified previously. The gene encodes for a protein of 403 amino acids which is very similar to the two T. cruzi CL Brener (TcIIe lineage) sequences published, but has three different residues in highly conserved segments. At the amino acid level, the identity of TcI-pol beta with mitochondrial pol beta and pol beta-PAK from other trypanosomatids was between 68-80% and 22-30%, respectively. Miranda Tc-pol beta protein has an N-terminal sequence similar to that described in the mitochondrial Crithidia fasciculata pol beta, which suggests that the TcI-pol beta plays a role in the organelle. Northern and Western analyses showed that this T. cruzi gene is highly expressed both in proliferative and non-proliferative developmental forms. These results suggest that, in addition to replication of kDNA in proliferative cells, this enzyme may have another function in non-proliferative cells, such as DNA repair role similar to that which has extensively been described in a vast spectrum of eukaryotic cells.
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10.
  • Huyse, T., et al. (författare)
  • Co-phylogeographic study of the flatworm Gyrodactylus gondae and its goby host Pomatoschistus minutus
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Parasitology International. - 1383-5769. ; 66:2, s. 119-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a comparative phylogeographic study on the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus gondae Huyse, Malmberg & Volckaert 2005 (Gyrodactylidae) and its sand goby host Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) (Gobiidae). G. gondae is a host-specific parasite with a direct life cycle and a very short generation time. These properties are expected to increase the chance to track the genealogical history of the host with genetic data of the parasite ('magnifying glass principle'). To investigate this hypothesis we screened nine sand goby populations (n = 326) along the Atlantic coasts of Europe for Gyrodactylus specimens. Low parasite prevalence resulted in partially overlapping host and parasite datasets. Ninety-two G. gondae collected on five sand goby populations were subsequently sequenced for a 460 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (coxII) fragment, which, in combination with previously published haplotype data for the hosts, allowed for partially overlapping host and parasite datasets. Haplotype diversity was lowest in the Irish Sea while nucleotide diversity was highest in the Southern North Sea. The host population also showed the lowest diversity in the Irish Sea but the highest nucleotide diversity, based on cytochrome b sequences of 850 bp, was found in Skagerrak. Phylogeographic networks suggest postglacial expansion in both the host and the parasite. Pair-wise population differentiation was however not consistently higher in the parasite than in the host, rejecting the magnifying glass hypothesis for this host-parasite system. The parasite network offered limited resolution and was characterized by many extinctions and/or missing haplotypes, which could be attributed to 1) sampling bias, 2) size fluctuations in the parasite populations resulting in frequent extinctions and genetic drift and 3) the relatively young age of the host-parasite association. A more exhaustive study including a broader geographical and genomic coverage is needed to discriminate among these competing hypotheses. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 14
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