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Träfflista för sökning "L773:1399 3003 OR L773:0903 1936 ;srt2:(1995-1999)"

Sökning: L773:1399 3003 OR L773:0903 1936 > (1995-1999)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 63
  • Föregående 1[2]34567Nästa
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11.
  • Girard, V, et al. (författare)
  • Pre- and postjunctional inhibitory effects of fenspiride on guinea-pig bronchi
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 10:5, s. 1015-1020
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fenspiride is a drug with potential benefits in the treatment of obstructive airways disease. It has antibronchoconstriction and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on the contractions induced in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus and perfused lung by electrical field stimulation (EFS) or exogenously added agents. Bronchi were stimulated transmurally in the presence of indomethacin 10(-6) M and propranolol 10(-6) M, and isometric tension was measured. In the perfused lung model calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release was determined in the perfusate fractions as a measure of neuropeptide production. Two successive contractile responses were observed: a rapid cholinergic contraction, followed by a long-lasting contraction due to local release of neuropeptides from C-fibre endings. Fenspiride (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) inhibited the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) component of the contraction of the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus induced by EFS. Fenspiride significantly affected contractions induced by exogenously added substance P or [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) only at concentrations higher than 10(-3) M. In the guinea-pig perfused lung, fenspiride inhibited low pH- but not capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP. At higher concentrations (10(-4) M to 3x10(-4) M) fenspiride exhibited a significant inhibitory effect both on the cholinergic component of contractile response induced by EFS in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus and on exogenously added acetylcholine. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that fenspiride, in moderate concentrations, reduces the release of neuropeptides, including tachykinins, from sensory nerve endings at a prejunctional level. At higher concentrations, postjunctional actions on bronchial smooth muscle are also present.
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12.
  • HEDNER, J, et al. (författare)
  • Reduction in sympathetic activity after long-term CPAP treatment in sleep apnoea: cardiovascular implications
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 8:2, s. 222-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twelve patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea were included in an open, long-term, prospective, follow-up study addressing the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on sympathetic activity, cardiac structure and blood pressure. Plasma norepinephrine (P-NE) (daytime at rest), daytime and night-time urinary excretion of NE (U-NE), vanylmandelic acid and metanephrines, together with 24 h noninvasive blood pressure (BP) recording and Doppler-echocardiography, were assessed before and after a mean of 20.5 (range 14-26) months of CPAP. Average self-reported use of CPAP was 89% (range 65-100%) of time spent in bed. Resting daytime P-NE ranged 0.35-0.83 ng.ml-1, which is elevated compared to healthy controls. Only night-time U-NE, mean daytime BP and average 24 h BP were related to severity of OSA. Night-time metanephrine was related to daytime and night-time diastolic, as well as night-time systolic, BP. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) at baseline was correlated to daytime systolic BP and P-NE. Long-term CPAP treatment reduced biochemical markers of sympathetic activity. P-NE decreased by approximately 50%, and daytime and night-time vanylmandelic acid and metanephrine by 32-54%. In contrast, there were no overall reductions in BP or LVMI. It is concluded that obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with high sympathetic activity both during sleep and waking periods. Urinary metanephrine excretion seemed to reflect blood pressure, but neither daytime nor night-time catecholamine excretion was directly related to disease severity in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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13.
  • Hillerdal, G (författare)
  • Chylothorax and pseudochylothorax
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 10:5, s. 1157-1162
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chylothorax is the occurrence of chylus (lymph) in the pleura due to damage to the thoracic duct. There is a high content of triglycerides, and chylomicrons can be seen. It is usually right-sided, since most of the duct is within the right hemithorax. With damage at the level of the aorta, the chyle will appear on the left. Traumatic rupture occurs after accidents or surgery. Of nontraumatic causes, the most common is a malignant lymphoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax and upper abdomen should be performed. Lymphography can show where the leakage or blockage is situated. With repeated drains, large amounts of fat, proteins, and lymphocytes are lost. Treatment is with low-fat diet or parenteral nutrition to decrease the amount of chyle, but chemical pleurodesis or ligation of the thoracic duct, usually via thoracoscopy, is often necessary. Pseudochylothorax (cholesterol pleurisy) occurs with long-standing fluid in a fibrotic pleura. The fluid has a high content of cholesterol but no triglycerides or chylomicrons. In both conditions, the pleural fluid is thick, opalescent, whitish or the colour of cafe-au-lait.
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14.
  • Hillerdal, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Pleural disease during treatment with bromocriptine in patients previously exposed to asbestos
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 10:12, s. 2711-2715
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bromocriptine, which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, can cause adverse pleuropulmonary reactions. Exposure to asbestos can result in similar lesions. Fifteen patients with former exposure to asbestos, who developed pleural fibrosis after treatment with bromocriptine, were observed independently in Sweden (11 patients) and Australia (four patients). The patients complained of malaise, often associated with weight loss, dyspnoea, and a disturbing cough. Laboratory values included increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and a low haemoglobin level. Lung function tests showed a restrictive lung function defect. Chest radiographs showed bilateral pleural fibrosis, with small amounts of fluid in some cases. Soon after bromocriptine was withdrawn, the patients improved clinically, and the laboratory values returned to normal. However, in most cases, pleural fibrosis and a restrictive lung function defect persisted to some extent. In conclusion, in patients who develop pleuropulmonary fibrosis whilst being treated with bromocriptine, former exposure to asbestos should be investigated. Conversely, when pleural changes develop in a patient on bromocriptine and with prior exposure to asbestos, the possible causative role of the drug should be discussed. Special follow-up may be indicated when bromocriptine is planned in a patient with previous asbestos exposure, and if symptoms or signs of pleural fibrosis develop, bromocriptine withdrawal should be considered.
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15.
  • Hoekx, JCM, et al. (författare)
  • Fluticasone propionate compared with budesonide: a double-blind trial in asthmatic children using powder devices at a dosage of 400 microg x day(-1)
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 9:11, s. 2263-2272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare fluticasone propionate (FP) with budesonide (BUD) at a dose of 400 microg x day(-1) in the treatment of children with asthma. Two hundred and twenty nine children with mild-to-moderate asthma, currently receiving 200-400 microg x day(-1) of inhaled corticosteroid, were randomized to receive either 400 microg x day(-1) of FP from the Diskhaler (registered trade mark of the Glaxo Group of Companies) or 400 microg x day(-1) of BUD from the Turbuhaler (registered trade mark of Astra Pharmaceuticals Ltd) for 8 weeks, in a parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study. Primary efficacy was assessed by measurement of daily peak expiratory flow (PEF). In addition, pulmonary function tests were performed at each clinic visit and a self-administered patient-centred questionnaire was completed by one parent of each patient at the start and end of study treatment. Mean morning PEF increased following treatment both with FP and BUD, but was significantly higher following treatment with FP during Weeks 1-4 (p=0.015) and Weeks 1-8 (p=0.019). Similar results were found for mean evening PEF and percentage predicted morning and evening PEF. Children receiving FP experienced significantly less disruption in their physical activities (i.e. sports, games) because of their asthma compared to children treated with BUD (p=0.03). Mean cortisol levels increased in both groups, but the increase was significantly higher in the FP group at 4 weeks (p=0.022). Serum and urine markers of bone formation and resorption changed very little and showed no consistent pattern of change. Fluticasone propionate at a dosage of 400 microg x day(-1) from the Diskhaler provided a more rapid and greater improvement in lung function in children with mild-to-moderate asthma than BUD 400 microg day(-1) from the Turbuhaler. Both treatments were well-tolerated, with a similar safety profile.
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16.
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17.
  • Larsson, K, et al. (författare)
  • Inhalation of cold air increases the number of inflammatory cells in the lungs in healthy subjects
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 12:4, s. 825-830
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prolonged exposure to cold air may induce a chronic asthma-like condition in healthy subjects as has been demonstrated in cross-country skiers. In the present controlled study, our aim was to elucidate further the link between cold air exposure and airway inflammation by assessing the cellular influx and mediator levels within the airways following acute exposure to cold air. Bronchoalveolar (BAL) and nasal lavages were performed after exposure to cold air (-23 degrees C) and normal indoor air (+22 degrees C) during a light, intermittent work for 2 h in a cross-over design in eight healthy, nonsmoking, subjects. Analyses of inflammatory cell number, cell activation markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines, albumin and interleukin (IL)-8 in lavage fluids were performed. The number of granulocytes and of alveolar macrophages in BAL fluid was significantly higher after cold air exposure (p<0.05). No increase in BAL fluid lymphocytes and no signs of lymphocyte activation in BAL fluid were found. The concentration of IL-8 was unchanged. There were no signs of granulocyte activation (myeloperoxidase, eosinphilic cationic protein) in BAL fluid. Cold air did not influence the number of inflammatory cells or the concentration of albumin and IL-8 in nasal lavage fluid. In conclusion, exposure to cold air induces an increased number of granulocytes and macrophages in the lower airways in healthy subjects without influencing other inflammatory indices such as cellular activation, plasma leakage and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings support the hypothesis that cold air could be of pathogenetic importance in the asthma-like condition previously found in cross-country skiers.
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18.
  • Lensmar, C, et al. (författare)
  • Leukocyte counts and macrophage phenotypes in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal subjects
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 12:3, s. 595-600
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is unclear whether leukocytes in induced sputum (IS) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) represent the same cell populations. To compare leukocyte counts and macrophage phenotypes and investigate any measurable dithiothreitol (DTT)-mediated effect on macrophage immunocytochemical staining results, IS and BAL samples from nine healthy smokers and seven nonsmokers were examined. BAL and IS samples were processed and cell viability and cell counts were assessed. The macrophages were characterized by seven monoclonal antibodies (RFD1, RFD7, CD11b, CD54, CD68, CD71 and HLA-DR) using an indirect immunoalkaline phosphatase method. Intraindividual comparison of IS and BAL showed that IS samples from smokers and nonsmokers contained a lower total cell count (p<0.01 smokers, p<0.05 nonsmokers), a lower percentage of macrophages (both p<0.05) and a higher percentage of neutrophils (both p<0.05) than BAL samples. In addition, nonsmokers sputum samples contained a lower proportion of lymphocytes (p<0.05) than BAL. The macrophage expression of RFD7 and CD71 was higher in smokers sputum samples (both p<0.05) than in BAL, while nonsmokers sputum macrophages showed a higher expression of CD54 and CD71 (both p<0.05) than BAL macrophages. DTT-incubated BAL samples showed no difference in macrophage antigen expression from BAL samples not exposed to DTT. In conclusion, the relative proportions of leukocytes and the macrophage phenotypes differed between induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage suggesting that the methods provide samples from different lung compartments, inhabited by cells with different phenotypes.
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19.
  • Lundahl, J, et al. (författare)
  • Human blood monocytes, but not alveolar macrophages, reveal increased CD11b/CD18 expression and adhesion properties upon receptor-dependent activation
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 9:6, s. 1188-1194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The beta 2 integrin receptor CD11b/CD18 mediates adhesion to the endothelial lining as well as to extracellular matrix components. The present study was undertaken to investigate peripheral human blood monocytes (BMs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) with respect to quantitative levels of CD11b/CD18 and adhesion properties in relation to the state of activation. BMs and AMs were recruited from healthy subjects. Quantitative analysis of the surface expression of CD11b/CD18 by flow cytometric technique and adhesion properties to albumin-coated surfaces were performed both on resting and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-activated cells. Receptor independent stimuli (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin) were used in additional experiments. Intracellular stored CD11b/CD18 was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The surface expression of CD11b/CD18 on resting BMs increased fivefold (p < 0.01) upon fMLP activation. On resting AMs, the surface expression of CD11b/CD18 was significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared to resting BMs but did not increase further upon activation with fMLP, PMA or ionomycin. In contrast to BMs, no evidence for an additional intracellular pool of CD11b/CD18 was found in AMs. The adherence of resting BMs did not significantly differ from the adherence of resting AMs. After fMLP activation, the adherence of BMs, but not AMs, increased significantly (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that in vivo differentiation of human blood monocytes into alveolar macrophages implies reduced responsiveness to fMLP in terms of CD11b/CD18 upregulation and adhesion properties, and that the lack of upregulation of CD11b/CD18 on alveolar macrophages presumably depends on the absence of an additional intracellular pool.
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20.
  • Lundberg, JON, et al. (författare)
  • Nitric oxide in exhaled air
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 9:12, s. 2671-2680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Much interest is now being focused on measurements of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air. In healthy subjects exhaled NO seems to originate mainly in the nasal airways, whereas the contribution from the lower respiratory tract is low. In certain inflammatory airway disorders, the excretion of NO into the airways is altered resulting in changes in the levels of NO in exhaled air. New techniques have been developed to measure NO release at different levels of the airways: asthmatics show increased orally-exhaled NO levels, whereas patients with cystic fibrosis or Kartagener's syndrome exhibit a marked reduction in nasal release of NO. It has been suggested that measurements of exhaled NO may be clinically useful in noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory airway diseases. To further evaluate the potential clinical usefulness of measurement of exhaled NO, it is vital to explore how airway NO production is normally regulated and what factors influence airway NO excretion.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 63
  • Föregående 1[2]34567Nästa

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