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Sökning: L773:1423 0208 > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Boström, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality Statistics Studies of Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - : S. Karger. - 0251-5350 .- 1423-0208. ; 38:4, s. 245-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are chronic neurologic diseases where distinct explanations of the pathogenesis are lacking. Two large Swedish register studies have rather unexpectedly detected a correlation between MS and ALS.The aim of this study was to investigate if an association between ALS and MS could be demonstrated as has been shown earlier.Material and methods: Data on mortality from ALS and MS, 1990-2010 were collected from the Swedish national statistics office. In all there were 5,696 deaths due to ALS and 3,941 deaths due to MS. Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates were calculated.Results: There was no correlation between the mortality rates of ALS and MS in the 21 counties of Sweden for the period 1990 to 2010 (Spearman’s rho = - 0.052; p = 0.822; n = 21).The national mean mortality rate for ALS throughout the period of 1990 to 2010 was 2.98 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 2.87 – 3.08). For MS the national mean mortality rate was 2.04 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 1.95 – 2.12). Both ALS and MS mortality showed significant variation between the counties. Conclusion: This study did not confirm the previously shown association between MS and ALS in Sweden.
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2.
  • Cea-Soriano, Lucia, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology of Meningioma in the United Kingdom
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - 0251-5350 .- 1423-0208. ; 39:1, s. 27-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Data on the epidemiology and aetiology of meningioma are limited.Methods:The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database was used to ascertain incident cases of meningioma between January 1996 and June 2008. Ten thousand controls analysis were frequency-matched by age, sex and year. A nested case control analysis was performed to determine risk factors for meningioma.Results:The incidence of meningioma was 5.30 per 100,000 person-years over the study period. The incidence was higher in women than in men (7.19 vs. 3.05 per 100,000 person-years). Cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.46-2.36) and a history of cancer, thyroid disease, epilepsy, migraine and headache and exposure to antiepileptics were significantly associated with an increased risk of meningionna. Ischemic heart disease and exposure to antiepileptics were associated with a decreased risk of meningionna.Conclusions: The incidence of meningioma in the UK remained stable over the 12-year study period and was twofold higher in women than men. Although the prevalence and incidence of meningioma remained stable during the study, further research into risk factors and predisposing conditions for the onset of meningioma and early symptoms of tumor development is warranted to improve prevention and early diagnosis of this disease.
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4.
  • Feldman, Adina L., et al. (författare)
  • Accuracy and Sensitivity of Parkinsonian Disorder Diagnoses in Two Swedish National Health Registers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - : Karger. - 1423-0208. ; 38:3, s. 186-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Swedish population-based national health registers are widely used data sources in epidemiological research. Register-based diagnoses of Parkinson's disease have not been validated against clinical information. Methods: Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorder diagnoses were ascertained in two registers, i.e. the National Patient Register (NPR) and the Cause of Death Register (CDR). Diagnoses were validated in terms of accuracy (positive predictive value) and sensitivity against data from a population-based study of PD in 1998-2004 that screened more than 35,000 persons and identified 194 cases of parkinsonian disorders including 132 PD cases (the gold standard for the purposes of this study). Results: Accuracy for any parkinsonian disorder diagnoses was 88.0% in the NPR and 94.4% in the CDR. Accuracy of PD diagnoses was 70.8% in the NPR and 66.7% in the CDR. Misclassification between differential parkinsonian diagnoses was common. The accuracy of PD diagnoses in the NPR improved to 83.0% by restricting the definition to primary diagnoses only. The sensitivity of PD diagnoses in the NPR and CDR combined was 83.1%, with a mean time to detection of 6.9 years. Conclusions: Population-based national health registers are valid data sources in epidemiological studies of PD or parkinsonian disorder etiology but are less suitable in studies of incidence or prevalence. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel
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7.
  • Hardell, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Mobile phone use and the risk for malignant brain tumors : A case-control study on deceased cases and controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - 0251-5350 .- 1423-0208. ; 35:2, s. 109-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the use of mobile or cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumors in a group of deceased cases. Most previous studies have either left out deceased cases of brain tumors or matched them to living controls and therefore a study matching deceased cases to deceased controls is warranted. Recall error is one issue since it has been claimed that increased risks reported in some studies could be due to cases blaming mobile phones as a cause of the disease. This should be of less importance for deceased cases and if cancer controls are used. In this study brain tumor cases aged 20-80 years diagnosed during 1997-2003 that had died before inclusion in our previous studies on the same topic were included. Two control groups were used: one with controls that had died from another type of cancer than brain tumor and one with controls that had died from other diseases. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire sent to the next-of-kin for both cases and controls. Replies were obtained for 346 (75%) cases, 343 (74%) cancer controls and 276 (60%) controls with other diseases. Use of mobile phones gave an increased risk, highest in the >10 years' latency group yielding odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.1. The risk increased with cumulative number of lifetime hours for use, and was highest in the >2,000 h group (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6-7.1). No clear association was found for use of cordless phones, although OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.8-3.4 was found in the group with >2,000 h of cumulative use. This investigation confirmed our previous results of an association between mobile phone use and malignant brain tumors.
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8.
  • Koster, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Refinement of Swedish Administrative Registers to Monitor Stroke Events on the National Level
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - Basel : S. Karger. - 0251-5350 .- 1423-0208. ; 40:4, s. 240-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Routinely collected databases are kept for administrative purposes. We have refined the analyses of the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register and explored their validity to monitor stroke at the population level. Methods: First-ever strokes (incident cases) and all stroke events were measured by combining the two administrative registers and adding refinements. The administrative registers were validated against the Northern Sweden MONICA, a well-validated population-based epidemiological stroke register. Positive predictive values (PPVs) and sensitivity were calculated. Results: After refinements (restriction to first-ever strokes and additional minor delineations), the PPV of the two administrative registers combined was 94% and sensitivity 92% when compared with all MONICA stroke categories together. For stroke attacks (first and recurrent events together), the PPV in the administrative registers was 85% and sensitivity 91%. The PPV was higher in women than in men, whereas the sensitivity was similar. The PPV was lower but sensitivity higher in people below compared with those above 75 years of age. Both PPV and sensitivity were lower among fatal cases than among cases that survived 28 days. Conclusions: After refinement, Swedish national administrative registers may, with some caveats, be used as a low-resource-consuming alternative to crudely monitor stroke incidence rates at the national level. If further accuracy is strived for, high-quality conventional epidemiological registers are required. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel
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9.
  • Oudin, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Estimation of Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Stroke Hospital Admissions in Southern Sweden.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - : Karger. - 1423-0208. ; 34:3, s. 131-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Short-term exposure to high levels of air pollution can increase stroke risk. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for stroke in a setting where pollutant levels are rather low. We also addressed methodological issues in evaluating the short-term effects of air pollution. Methods: Daily admissions of ischemic (n = 11,267) and hemorrhagic (n = 1,681) stroke were obtained from a Swedish quality register for stroke, Riks-Stroke. We used two types of exposure data: (1) daily measured background levels of ozone, temperature and particles with a diameter <10 mum (PM(10)) and (2) modeled levels of a mixture of NO and NO(2) (NO(x)) at the residential address of each individual. Results: We estimated a 13% (95% confidence interval, 4-22%) increased risk for hospital admissions for ischemic stroke for levels of PM(10) above 30 mug/m(3) compared to <15 mug/m(3), whereas temperature above 16 degrees C decreased the risk. No consistent associations were found for hemorrhagic stroke or for ischemic stroke and ozone or NO(x). Conclusion: Particulate air pollution and temperature seemed to be associated with ischemic stroke hospital admissions. Individual exposure modeling facilitates a detailed exposure assessment but may also be more prone to misclassification errors. The time series and case crossover approaches yielded similar effect estimates.
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10.
  • Starby, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • Multiplicity of Risk Factors in Ischemic Stroke Patients: Relations to Age, Sex, and Subtype - A Study of 2,505 Patients from the Lund Stroke Register.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - : Karger. - 1423-0208. ; 42:3, s. 161-168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The prevalence of risk factors for ischemic stroke may vary between different groups of stroke patients. We examined the distribution of individual well-established risk factors as well as the multiplicity of risk factors in different age groups and among subtypes. Methods: In the Lund Stroke Register, we consecutively enrolled 2,505 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke from 2001 to 2009 and registered hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, current smoking, hypercholesterolemia as well as stroke subtype. Results: Among young patients (<55 years), at least 50% had ≥2 risk factors and 20-25% had ≥3 risk factors. In patients aged 55 years or older, the proportion with ≥2 risk factors was 70-80% and with ≥3 risk factors 35-45%. Men and women had a similar burden of risk factors. Approximately 50% of the cases classified as cardioembolism (CE) and large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) had ≥3 risk factors, which was significantly more than the other TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) subtypes (CE p < 0.001, LAA p = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of well-established risk factors is similar among young and old stroke patients with large proportions (50-80%) having ≥2 risk factors. Even though the prevalence of well-established risk factors differs between pathogenetic subtypes, these risk factors as well as the multiplicity of risk factors seem to be of clinical importance in all major subtypes of ischemic stroke. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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