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Sökning: L773:1424 8247 OR L773:1424 8247

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  • Regberg, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Applications of Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Tumor Targeting and Future Cancer Therapies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals. - : MDPI AG. - 1424-8247. ; 5:9, s. 991-1007
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cell-penetrating peptides provide a highly promising strategy for intracellular drug delivery. One relevant clinical application of cell-penetrating peptides is cancer therapeutics. Peptide based delivery could increase the uptake of drugs in tumor cells and thereby increase the efficacy of the treatment, either of conventional small molecular drugs or oligonucleotide based therapeutics. This review is focused on the cancer applications of cell penetrating peptides as delivery systems; different aspects of drug loading, cargoes and delivery are discussed together with methods for targeted delivery, activatable cell-penetrating peptides and transducible agents coupled to cell-penetrating peptides.
  • Alsehli, Ahmed M., et al. (författare)
  • The Statin Target HMG-Coenzyme a Reductase (Hmgcr) Regulates Sleep Homeostasis in Drosophila
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals. - : MDPI AG. - 1424-8247. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Statins, HMG Coenzyme A Reductase (HMGCR) inhibitors, are a first-line therapy, used to reduce hypercholesterolemia and the risk for cardiovascular events. While sleep disturbances are recognized as a side-effect of statin treatment, the impact of statins on sleep is under debate. Using Drosophila, we discovered a novel role for Hmgcr in sleep modulation. Loss of pan-neuronal Hmgcr expression affects fly sleep behavior, causing a decrease in sleep latency and an increase in sleep episode duration. We localized the pars intercerebralis (PI), equivalent to the mammalian hypothalamus, as the region within the fly brain requiring Hmgcr activity for proper sleep maintenance. Lack of Hmgcr expression in the PI insulin-producing cells recapitulates the sleep effects of pan-neuronal Hmgcr knockdown. Conversely, loss of Hmgcr in a different PI subpopulation, the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) homologue-expressing neurons (DH44 neurons), increases sleep latency and decreases sleep duration. The requirement for Hmgcr activity in different neurons signifies its importance in sleep regulation. Interestingly, loss of Hmgcr in the PI does not affect circadian rhythm, suggesting that Hmgcr regulates sleep by pathways distinct from the circadian clock. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hmgcr activity in the PI is essential for proper sleep homeostasis in flies.
  • Banis, G. E., et al. (författare)
  • The binding effect of proteins on medications and its impact on electrochemical sensing : Antipsychotic clozapine as a case study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals. - : MDPI AG. - 1424-8247. ; 10:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clozapine (CLZ), a dibenzodiazepine, is demonstrated as the optimal antipsychotic for patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Like many other drugs, understanding the concentration of CLZ in a patient’s blood is critical for managing the patients’ symptoms, side effects, and overall treatment efficacy. To that end, various electrochemical techniques have been adapted due to their capabilities in concentration-dependent sensing. An open question associated with electrochemical CLZ monitoring is whether drug–protein complexes (i.e., CLZ bound to native blood proteins, such as serum albumin (SA) or alpha-1 acid-glycoprotein (AAG)) contribute to electrochemical redox signals. Here, we investigate CLZ-sensing performance using fundamental electrochemical methods with respect to the impact of protein binding. Specifically, we test the activity of bound and free fractions of a mixture of CLZ and either bovine SA or human AAG. Results suggest that bound complexes do not significantly contribute to the electrochemical signal for mixtures of CLZ with AAG or SA. Moreover, the fraction of CLZ bound to protein is relatively constant at 31% (AAG) and 73% (SA) in isolation with varying concentrations of CLZ. Thus, electrochemical sensing can enable direct monitoring of only the unbound CLZ, previously only accessible via equilibrium dialysis. The methods utilized in this work offer potential as a blueprint in developing electrochemical sensors for application to other redox-active medications with high protein binding more generally. This demonstrates that electrochemical sensing can be a new tool in accessing information not easily available previously, useful toward optimizing treatment regimens. 
  • Bjerkan, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple functions of the new cytokine-based antimicrobial peptide thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals. - : MDPI AG. - 1424-8247. ; 9:3
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a pleiotropic cytokine, hitherto mostly known to be involved in inflammatory responses and immunoregulation. The human tslp gene gives rise to two transcription and translation variants: a long form (lfTSLP) that is induced by inflammation, and a short, constitutively-expressed form (sfTSLP), that appears to be downregulated by inflammation. The TSLP forms can be produced by a number of cell types, including epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs). lfTSLP can activate mast cells, DCs, and T cells through binding to the lfTSLP receptor (TSLPR) and has a pro-inflammatory function. In contrast, sfTSLP inhibits cytokine secretion of DCs, but the receptor mediating this effect is unknown. Our recent studies have demonstrated that both forms of TSLP display potent antimicrobial activity, exceeding that of many other known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), with sfTSLP having the strongest effect. The AMP activity is primarily mediated by the C-terminal region of the protein and is localized within a 34-mer peptide (MKK34) that spans the C-terminal α-helical region in TSLP. Fluorescent studies of peptide-treated bacteria, electron microscopy, and liposome leakage models showed that MKK34 exerted membrane-disrupting effects comparable to those of LL-37. Expression of TSLP in skin, oral mucosa, salivary glands, and intestine is part of the defense barrier that aids in the control of both commensal and pathogenic microbes.
  • Cooper, Callum J., et al. (författare)
  • Enhancing Whole Phage Therapy and Their Derived Antimicrobial Enzymes through Complex Formulation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals. - : MDPI AG. - 1424-8247. ; 11:2
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The resurgence of research into phage biology and therapy is, in part, due to the increasing need for novel agents to treat multidrug-resistant infections. Despite a long clinical history in Eastern Europe and initial success within the food industry, commercialized phage products have yet to enter other sectors. This relative lack of success is, in part, due to the inherent biological limitations of whole phages. These include (but are not limited to) reaching target sites at sufficiently high concentrations to establish an infection which produces enough progeny phages to reduce the bacterial population in a clinically meaningful manner and the limited host range of some phages. Conversely, parallels can be drawn between antimicrobial enzymes derived from phages and conventional antibiotics. In the current article the biological limitations of whole phage-based therapeutics and their derived antimicrobial enzymes will be discussed. In addition, the ability of more complex formulations to address these issues, in the context of medical and non-medical applications, will also be included.
  • El-Huneidi, Waseem, et al. (författare)
  • Micromeria fruticosa Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast and Colorectal Cancer Cells
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals. - : MDPI. - 1424-8247. ; 13:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subs p.serpyllifolia (Lamiaceae) has been used widely in folk medicine to alleviate various ailments such as abdominal pains, diarrhea, colds, eye infections, heart disorders and wounds. A few reports have confirmed different therapeutic potentialities of its extracts, including the anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, analgesic, antiobesity and antidiabetic activities. This study aimed to investigate the mechanistic pathway of the antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract ofM. fruticosaon two different cancer cell lines, namely human breast (mammary carcinoma F7 (MCF-7)) and human colorectal (human colon tumor cells (HCT-116)) cell lines. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tetrazolium (MTT) assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI, caspases 8/9 and cell cycle analyses, qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to assess the effect of M. fruticosaon cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle, cell cycle-related genes and protein expression profiles in MCF-7 and HCT-116. The extract inhibits cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for both cell lines was found to be 100 mu g/mL. Apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC/PI, that was related to caspases 8 and 9 activities induction. Furthermore, the cell cycle analysis revealed arrest at G2/M phase. The underlying mechanism involved in the G2/M arrest was found to be associated with the downregulation of CDK1, cyclin B1 and survivin that was confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting.
  • Fani, Melpomeni, et al. (författare)
  • Current Status of Radiopharmaceuticals for the Theranostics of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals. - : MDPI AG. - 1424-8247. ; 10:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics) of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr), other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) is highly expressed in benign insulinomas, the Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2)/Gastrin receptor is expressed in different NENs, in particular medullary thyroid cancer, and the Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) receptor was found to be expressed in gastrointestinal and bronchial NENs, where interestingly, it is present in most of the sstr-negative and GLP-1R-negative NENs. Also in the field of sstr targeting new discoveries brought into light an alternative approach with the use of radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists, instead of the clinically used agonists. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and the most innovative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment (theranostics) of neuroendocrine neoplasms using a cadre of radiolabeled regulatory peptides targeting their receptors.
  • Frisk, G, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-Differences in Discontinuation of Statin Treatment in Cancer Patients the Year before Death
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland). - : MDPI AG. - 1424-8247. ; 14:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Statin treatment is often terminated in patients with advanced cancer but guidelines for statin discontinuation are still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate sex-differences in time-points of statin discontinuation in patients with advanced cancer. Medical records from 1535 deceased patients enrolled at a Palliative Home Care Unit were reviewed. A total of 149 patients (42 women and 107 men) who were diagnosed with cancer, and were treated with statins one year before death, were identified. Statin treatment was terminated earlier in women than in men, 3.0 months prior to death (IQR 0.88–7.25) as compared to 1.5 months (IQR 0.5–4.0) (p < 0.05), respectively. In a longitudinal analysis there was a significant difference between men and women still on statin treatment at all studied time-points, 9, 6, and 3 months before death (p < 0.05), where women terminated statin treatment earlier in the disease trajectory. Baseline demographics were similar between the sexes except that more men than women had a history of previous cardiovascular events (p < 0.01). However, neither the indication for statin treatment, i.e., primary prevention versus secondary prevention, nor age could explain the sex-difference in statin discontinuation. There was no difference in cardiovascular events or mortality between men and women after statin discontinuation.
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