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1.
  • Ackermann, Kathrin, et al. (författare)
  • N-2 Fixation in Feather Mosses is a Sensitive Indicator of N Deposition in Boreal Forests
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems. - : Springer. - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 15:6, s. 986-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nitrogen (N) fixation in the feather moss-cyanobacteria association represents a major N source in boreal forests which experience low levels of N deposition; however, little is known about the effects of anthropogenic N inputs on the rate of fixation of atmospheric N-2 in mosses and the succeeding effects on soil nutrient concentrations and microbial community composition. We collected soil samples and moss shoots of Pleurozium schreberi at six distances along busy and remote roads in northern Sweden to assess the influence of road-derived N inputs on N-2 fixation in moss, soil nutrient concentrations and microbial communities. Soil nutrients were similar between busy and remote roads; N-2 fixation was higher in mosses along the remote roads than along the busy roads and increased with increasing distance from busy roads up to rates of N-2 fixation similar to remote roads. Throughfall N was higher in sites adjacent to the busy roads but showed no distance effect. Soil microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition exhibited a weak pattern regarding road type. Concentrations of bacterial and total PLFAs decreased with increasing distance from busy roads, whereas fungal PLFAs showed no distance effect. Our results show that N-2 fixation in feather mosses is highly affected by N deposition, here derived from roads in northern Sweden. Moreover, as other measured factors showed only weak differences between the road types, atmospheric N-2 fixation in feather mosses represents a highly sensitive indicator for increased N loads to natural systems.
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2.
  • Alonso-Saez, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Factors controlling the year-round variability in carbon flux through bacteria in a coastal marine system
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 11:3, s. 397-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data from several years of monthly samplings are combined with a 1-year detailed study of carbon flux through bacteria at a NW Mediterranean coastal site to delineate the bacterial role in carbon use and to assess whether environmental factors or bacterial assemblage composition affected the in situ rates of bacterial carbon processing. Leucine (Leu) uptake rates [as an estimate of bacterial heterotrophic production (BHP)] showed high interannual variability but, on average, lower values were found in winter (around 50 pM Leu(-1) h(-1)) as compared to summer (around 150 pM Leu(-1) h(-1)). Leu-to-carbon conversion factors ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 kgC mol Leu(-1), with generally higher values in winter. Leu uptake was only weakly correlated to temperature, and over a full-year cycle (in 2003), Leu uptake peaked concomitantly with winter chlorophyll a (Chl a) maxima, and in periods of high ectoenzyme activities in spring and summer. This suggests that both low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) released by phytoplankton, and high molecular weight DOM in periods of low Chl a, can enhance BHP. Bacterial respiration (BR, range 7-48 mu g C l(-1) d(-1)) was not correlated to BHP or temperature, but was significantly correlated to DOC concentration. Total bacterial carbon demand (BHP plus BR) was only met by dissolved organic carbon produced by phytoplankton during the winter period. We measured bacterial growth efficiencies by the short-term and the long-term methods and they ranged from 3 to 42%, increasing during the phytoplankton blooms in winter (during the Chl a peaks), and in spring. Changes in bacterioplankton assemblage structure (as depicted by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting) were not coupled to changes in ecosystem functioning, at least in bacterial carbon use.
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3.
  • Althuizen, Inge H. J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term climate regime modulates the impact of short-term climate variability on decomposition in alpine grassland soils
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print). - : Springer. - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 21:8, s. 1580-1592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decomposition of plant litter is an important process in the terrestrial carbon cycle and makes up approximately 70% of the global carbon flux from soils to the atmosphere. Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on the litter decomposition processes at various timescales. Using the TeaBag Index, we investigated the impact on decomposition of short-term direct effects of temperature and precipitation by comparing temporal variability over years, versus long-term climate impacts that incorporate indirect effects mediated through environmental changes by comparing sites along climatic gradients. We measured the initial decomposition rate (k) and the stabilization factor (S; amount of labile litter stabilizing) across a climate grid combining three levels of summer temperature (6.5-10.5 degrees C) with four levels of annual precipitation (600-2700 mm) in three summers with varying temperature and precipitation. Several (a)biotic factors were measured to characterize environmental differences between sites. Increased temperatures enhanced k, whereas increased precipitation decreased k across years and climatic regimes. In contrast, S showed diverse responses to annual changes in temperature and precipitation between climate regimes. Stabilization of labile litter fractions increased with temperature only in boreal and sub-alpine sites, while it decreased with increasing precipitation only in sub-alpine and alpine sites. Environmental factors such as soil pH, soil C/N, litter C/N, and plant diversity that are associated with long-term climate variation modulate the response of k and S. This highlights the importance of long-term climate in shaping the environmental conditions that influences the response of decomposition processes to climate change.
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4.
  • Anderson, N. J., et al. (författare)
  • Landscape-Scale Variability of Organic Carbon Burial by SW Greenland Lakes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems. - : Springer. - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 22:8, s. 1706-1720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lakes are a key feature of arctic landscapes and can be an important component of regional organic carbon (OC) budgets, but C burial rates are not well estimated. 210 Pb-dated sediment cores and carbon and organic matter (as loss-on-ignition) content were used to estimate OC burial for 16 lakes in SW Greenland. Burial rates were corrected for sediment focusing using the 210 Pb flux method. The study lakes span a range of water chemistries (conductivity range 25–3400 µS cm −1 ), areas (< 4–100 ha) and maximum depths (~ 10–50 m). The regional average focusing-corrected OC accumulation rate was ~ 2 g C m −2 y −1 prior to ~ 1950 and 3.6 g C m −2 y −1 after 1950. Among-lake variability in post-1950 OC AR was correlated with in-lake dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity, altitude and location along the fjord. Twelve lakes showed an increase in mean OC AR over the analyzed time period, ~ 1880–2000; as the study area was cooling until recently, this increase is probably attributable to other global change processes, for example, altered inputs of N or P. There are ~ 20,000 lakes in the study area ranging from ~ 1 ha to more than 130 km 2 , although over 83% of lakes are less than 10 ha. Extrapolating the mean post-1950 OC AR (3.6 g C m −2 y −1 ) to all lakes larger than 1000 ha and applying a lower rate of ~ 2 g C m −2 y −1 to large lakes (> 1000 ha) suggests a regional annual lake OC burial rate of ~ 10.14 × 10 9 g C y −1 post 1950. Given the low C content of soils in this area, lakes represent a substantial regional C store.
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5.
  • Angeler, David (författare)
  • Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Increases Root Exudation of Carbon in Wetlands: Results from the First Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Facility (FACE) in a Marshland
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 21, s. 852-867
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experiments employing free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facilities have indicated that elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO(2)) stimulates growth in diverse terrestrial ecosystems. Studies of the effects of eCO(2) on wetland plants have indicated a similar response, but these studies were mostly performed in growth chambers. We conducted a 2-year FACE experiment [CO2 ae 582 A mu mol mol(-1)] in a marsh in Spain to test whether the common reed (Phragmites australis) responds to carbon enrichment, as previously reported in other macrophytes. More specifically, we tested the effect of eCO(2) on P. australis growth, photosynthesis, transpiration, and biomass, its effect on modifying plant and soil ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, and whether the strong environmental variability of this wetland modulates these responses. Our findings show that effects of eCO(2) in this wetland environment are more complex than previously believed, probably due to hydrological effects. The effects of eCO(2) on reed plants were cumulative and manifested at the end of the growing season as increased 38-44% instantaneous transpiration efficiency (ratio of net photosynthesis to transpiration), which was dependent on plant age. However, this increase did not result in a significant increase in biomass, because of excessive root exudation of carbon. These observations contrast with previous observations of wetland plants to increased atmospheric CO2 in growth chambers and shed new light on the role of wetland plants as a carbon sink in the face of global climate change. The combined effects of water stress, eCO(2), and soil carbon processes must be considered when assessing the function of wetlands as a carbon sink under global change scenarios.
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6.
  • Angeler, David (författare)
  • Panarchy: Theory and Application
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 17, s. 578-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concept of panarchy provides a framework that characterizes complex systems of people and nature as dynamically organized and structured within and across scales of space and time. It has been more than a decade since the introduction of panarchy. Over this period, its invocation in peer-reviewed literature has been steadily increasing, but its use remains primarily descriptive and abstract. Here, we discuss the use of the concept in the literature to date, highlight where the concept may be useful, and discuss limitations to the broader applicability of panarchy theory for research in the ecological and social sciences. Finally, we forward a set of testable hypotheses to evaluate key propositions that follow from panarchy theory.
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7.
  • Angeler, David, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial Patterns and Functional Redundancies in a Changing Boreal Lake Landscape
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 18, s. 889-902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global transformations extend beyond local habitats; therefore, larger-scale approaches are needed to assess community-level responses and resilience to unfolding environmental changes. Using long-term data (1996-2011), we evaluated spatial patterns and functional redundancies in the littoral invertebrate communities of 85 Swedish lakes, with the objective of assessing their potential resilience to environmental change at regional scales (that is, spatial resilience). Multivariate spatial modeling was used to differentiate groups of invertebrate species exhibiting spatial patterns in composition and abundance (that is, deterministic species) from those lacking spatial patterns (that is, stochastic species). We then determined the functional feeding attributes of the deterministic and stochastic invertebrate species, to infer resilience. Between one and three distinct spatial patterns in invertebrate composition and abundance were identified in approximately one-third of the species; the remainder were stochastic. We observed substantial differences in metrics between deterministic and stochastic species. Functional richness and diversity decreased over time in the deterministic group, suggesting a loss of resilience in regional invertebrate communities. However, taxon richness and redundancy increased monotonically in the stochastic group, indicating the capacity of regional invertebrate communities to adapt to change. Our results suggest that a refined picture of spatial resilience emerges if patterns of both the deterministic and stochastic species are accounted for. Spatially extensive monitoring may help increase our mechanistic understanding of community-level responses and resilience to regional environmental change, insights that are critical for developing management and conservation agendas in this current period of rapid environmental transformation.
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8.
  • Austin, Åsa N., et al. (författare)
  • Synergistic Effects of Rooted Aquatic Vegetation and Drift Wrack on Ecosystem Multifunctionality
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print). - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 24:7, s. 1670-1686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecosystem multifunctionality is an increasingly popular concept used to approximate multifaceted ecosystem functioning, which in turn may help advance ecosystem-based management. However, while experimental studies have shown a positive effect of diversity on multifunctionality, observational studies from natural systems-particularly aquatic-are scarce. Here, we tested the relative importance of species richness and cover of rooted aquatic vegetation, as well as cover of the loose-lying form of the macroalgae bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus), for ecosystem multifunctionality in shallow bays along the western Baltic Sea coast. We estimated multifunctionality based on four indicators of functions that support ecosystem services: recruitment of large predatory fish, grazer biomass, inverted 'nuisance' algal biomass, and water clarity. Piecewise path analysis showed that multifunctionality was driven by high cover of rooted aquatic vegetation and bladderwrack, particularly when the two co-occurred. This synergistic effect was nearly three times as strong as a negative effect of land-derived nitrogen loading. Species richness of aquatic vegetation indirectly benefitted multifunctionality by increasing vegetation cover. Meanwhile, high bladderwrack cover tended to decrease vegetation species richness, indicating that bladderwrack has both positive and negative effects on multifunctionality. We conclude that managing for dense and diverse vegetation assemblages may mitigate effects of anthropogenic pressures (for example, eutrophication) and support healthy coastal ecosystems that provide a range of benefits. To balance the exploitation of coastal ecosystems and maintain their multiple processes and services, management therefore needs to go beyond estimation of vegetation cover and consider the diversity and functional types of aquatic vegetation.
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9.
  • Axelsson, E Petter, et al. (författare)
  • Can leaf litter from genetically modified trees affect aquatic ecosystems?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print). - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 13:7, s. 1049-1059
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to potential benefits, biotechnology in silviculture may also be associated with environmental considerations, including effects on organisms associated with the living tree and on ecosystems and processes dependent on tree residue. We examined whether genetic modification of lignin characteristics (CAD and COMT) in Populus sp. affected leaf litter quality, the decomposition of leaf litter, and the assemblages of aquatic insects colonizing the litter in three natural streams. The decomposition of leaf litter from one of the genetically modified (GM) lines (CAD) was affected in ways that were comparable over streams and harvest dates. After 84 days in streams, CAD-litter had lost approximately 6.1% less mass than the non-GM litter. Genetic modification also affected the concentration of phenolics and carbon in the litter but this only partially explained the decomposition differences, suggesting that other factors were also involved. Insect community analyses comparing GM and non-GM litter showed no significant differences, and the two GM litters showed differences only in the 84-day litterbags. The total abundance and species richness of insects were also similar on GM and non-GM litter. The results presented here suggest that genetic modifications in trees can influence litter quality and thus have a potential to generate effects that can cross ecosystem boundaries and influence ecosystem processes not directly associated with the tree. Overall, the realized ecological effects of the GM tree varieties used here were nevertheless shown to be relatively small.
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10.
  • Baho, Didier L., et al. (författare)
  • Ecological Memory of Historical Contamination Influences the Response of Phytoplankton Communities
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print). - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 24:7, s. 1591-1607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecological memory (EM) recognizes the importance of previous stress encounters in promoting community tolerance and thereby enhances ecosystem stability, provided that gained tolerances are preserved during non-stress periods. Drawing from this concept, we hypothesized that the recruitment of tolerant species can be facilitated by imposing an initial sorting process (conditioning) during the early stages of community assembly, which should result in higher production (biomass development and photosynthetic efficiency) and stable community composition. To test this, phytoplankton resting stages were germinated from lake sediments originating from two catchments that differed in contamination history: one impacted by long-term herbicides and pesticides exposures (historically contaminated lake) from an agricultural catchment compared to a low-impacted one (near-pristine lake) from a forested catchment. Conditioning was achieved by adding an herbicide (Isoproturon, which was commonly used in the catchment of the historically contaminated lake) during germination. Afterward, the communities obtained from germination were exposed to an increasing gradient of Isoproturon. As hypothesized, upon conditioning, the phytoplankton assemblages from the historically contaminated lake were able to rapidly restore photosynthetic efficiency (p > 0.01) and became structurally (community composition) more resistant to Isoproturon. The communities of the near-pristine lake did not yield these positive effects regardless of conditioning, supporting that EM was a unique attribute of the historically stressed ecosystem. Moreover, assemblages that displayed higher structural resistance concurrently yielded lower biomass, indicating that benefits of EM in increasing structural stability may trade-off with production. Our results clearly indicate that EM can foster ecosystem stability to a recurring stressor.
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