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  • Aanen, M C, et al. (författare)
  • A detailed analysis of sodium removal by peritoneal dialysis: comparison with predictions from the three-pore model of membrane function
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2385. ; 20:6, s. 1192-1200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The development of fluid and salt retention is a potential problem for all peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Sodium removal by the peritoneum is predominantly determined by convective fluid loss but influenced by diffusion and sieving due to free water transport as predicted by the three-pore model (TPM). The aim of the study was to establish the effect of transport status, dwell length and glucose concentration on observed ultrafiltration (UF), dialysate sodium concentration ([Na+](D)) and removal, and compare this with that predicted by a computer program based on the principles of the TPM. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of UF and [Na+](D) collected prospectively from dwells classified by length, glucose concentration and membrane transport characteristics. Solute transport, converted to area parameter and UF capacity, was measured on each occasion by the peritoneal equilibration test. These parameters, along with plasma [Na+], were entered into the computer model. Fixed values for other parameters, e.g. hydraulic conductance and lymphatic absorption and sump volume, were used. Results. A total of 1853 dwells from 182 patients [10% were on automated PD (APD)] were analysed. There was a high degree of correlation (r=0.83-95, P<0.001) between the observed and predicted values for UF, [Na+](D) and sodium removal across the full range of dwell categories. The model overpredicted UF as the net volume increased with increasing glucose concentration, independently of solute transport. This bias was not fully explained by the preferential use of hypertonic dialysate by patients with reduced UF capacity. The prediction of [Na+](D) described sodium sieving, which was overestimated in a small number of patients with UF failure. There were no discrepancies between continous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and APD patients. Conclusion. This analysis endorses the TPM as a description of membrane function, particularly in relation to sodium sieving and removal. The relationship between dialysate glucose concentration and achieved UF appears to be more complex; even accounting for extended time on treatment and reduction in the osmotic conductance in patients preferentially using hypertonic exchanges, further adjustments may be needed to account for the tendency to overestimate UF.
  • Abeling, T., et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for death in kidney transplant patients: analysis from a large protocol biopsy registry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. - 1460-2385. ; 34:7, s. 1171-1181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Identification and quantification of the relevant factors for death can improve patients' individual risk assessment and decision-making. We used a well-documented patient cohort (n = 892) in a renal transplant programme with protocol biopsies to establish multivariable Cox models for risk assessment at 3 and 12 months post-transplantation. METHODS: Patients transplanted between 2000 and 2007 were observed up to 11 years (total observation 5227 patient-years; median 5.9 years). Loss to follow-up was negligible (n = 15). A total of 2251 protocol biopsies and 1214 biopsies for cause were performed. All rejections and clinical borderline rejections in protocol biopsies were treated. RESULTS: Overall 10-year patient survival was 78%, with inferior survival of patients with graft loss and superior survival of patients with living-donor transplantation. Eight factors were common in the models at 3 and 12 months, including age, pre-transplant heart failure and a score of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, post-transplant urinary tract infection, treatment of rejection, new-onset heart failure, coronary events and malignancies. Additional variables of the model at 3 months included deceased donor transplantation, transplant lymphocele, BK virus nephropathy and severe infections. Graft function and graft loss were significant factors of the model at 12 months. Internal validation and validation with a separate cohort of patients (n = 349) demonstrated good discrimination of the models. CONCLUSIONS: The identified factors indicate the important areas that need special attention in the pre- and post-transplant care of renal transplant patients. On the basis of these models, we provide nomograms as a tool to weigh individual risks that may contribute to decreased survival. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
  • Afghahi, Henri, 1966, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for the development of albuminuria and renal impairment in type 2 diabetes--the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. - 1460-2385 .- 0931-0509. ; 26:4, s. 1236-1243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors associated with the development of albuminuria and renal impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition, we evaluated if different equations to estimate renal function had an impact on interpretation of data. This was done in a nationwide population-based study using data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Methods. Three thousand and six hundred sixty-seven patients with T2D aged 30-74 years with no signs of renal dysfunction at baseline (no albuminuria and eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) according to MDRD) were followed up for 5 years (2002-2007). Renal outcomes, development of albuminuria and/or renal impairment [eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) by MDRD or eCrCl > 60 mL/min by Cockgroft-Gault (C-G)] were assessed at follow-up. Univariate regression analyses and stepwise regression models were used to identify significant clinical risk factors for renal outcomes. Results. Twenty percent of patients developed albuminuria, and 11% renal impairment; thus, ~6-7% of all patients developed non-albuminuric renal impairment. Development of albuminuria or renal impairment was independently associated with high age (all P < 0.001), high systolic BP (all P < 0.02) and elevated triglycerides (all P < 0.02). Additional independent risk factors for albuminuria were high BMI (P < 0.01), high HbA1c (P < 0.001), smoking (P < 0.001), HDL (P < 0.05) and male sex (P < 0.001), and for renal impairment elevated plasma creatinine at baseline and female sex (both P < 0.001). High BMI was an independent risk factor for renal impairment when defined by MDRD (P < 0.01), but low BMI was when defined by C-G (P < 0.001). Adverse effects of BMI on HbA1c, blood pressure and lipids accounted for ~50% of the increase risk for albuminuria, and for 41% of the increased risk for renal impairment (MDRD). Conclusions. Distinct sets of risk factors were associated with the development of albuminuria and renal impairment consistent with the concept that they are not entirely linked in patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity and serum triglycerides are semi-novel risk factors for development of renal dysfunction and BMI accounted for a substantial proportion of the increased risk. The equations used to estimate renal function (MDRD vs. C-G) had an impact on interpretation of data, especially with regard to body composition and gender.
  • Anders, Hans Joachim, et al. (författare)
  • Recommendations for the management of patients with immune-mediated kidney disease during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. - : Oxford University Press. - 0931-0509 .- 1460-2385. ; 35:6, s. 920-925
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created major challenges for all countries around the globe. Retrospective studies have identified hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and older age as risk factors for high morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. There is a general concern that patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases, namely those on immunosuppressive therapies and/or those with more advanced kidney failure, could particularly be at risk for adverse outcomes due to a compromised antiviral immunity. Uncertainties exist on how management routines should be reorganized to minimize the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and what measures are necessary for infected patients. The aim of the present review of the Immunonephrology Working Group of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association is to provide recommendations for the management of patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases based on the available evidence, similar circumstances with other infectious organisms and expert opinions from across Europe. Such recommendations may help to minimize the risk of encountering COVID-19 or developing complications during COVID-19 in patients with immune-mediated kidney disease.
  • Annuk, Margus, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclooxygenase inhibition improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with chronic renal failure
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation. - 0931-0509 .- 1460-2385. ; 17:12, s. 2159-2163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Some studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of L-arginine as a substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, and diclofenac as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived vasoconstrictive agents on vascular responses in humans during several pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of L-arginine and diclofenac on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) and endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EIDV) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). METHODS: Effects of L-arginine and diclofenac on EDV and EIDV were measured in 15 patients with CRF and in 15 healthy controls by means of forearm blood flow measurements with venous occlusion plethysmography during local intra-arterial infusions of methacholine (2 and 4 micro g/min evaluating EDV) and sodium nitroprusside (5 and 10 micro g/min evaluating EIDV). RESULTS: L-Arginine infusion increased methacholine-induced vasodilatation both in patients with CRF and healthy controls. Diclofenac infusion increased methacholine-induced vasodilatation only in patients with CRF. There was no significant change in nitroprusside-induced vasodilatation after L-arginine and diclofenac infusions both in patients with CRF and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that COX inhibition reduces the levels of a prostanoid-derived vasoconstrictive agent contributing to the impaired EDV in patients with CRF, while in this age group L-arginine improves EDV regardless of renal function.
  • Annuk, Margus, et al. (författare)
  • Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in renal failure in humans
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation. - 0931-0509 .- 1460-2385. ; 16:2, s. 302-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The main causes of death in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are cardiovascular complications. The aim of the present study was to compare endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in patients with chronic renal failure with a control population controlling for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with moderate CRF (mean creatinine clearance 29.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) underwent evaluation of EDV and endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EIDV) by means of forearm blood flow (FBF) measurements with venous occlusion plethysmography during local intra-arterial infusions of methacholine (Mch, 2 and 4 microg/min evaluating EDV) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 5 and 10 microg/min evaluating EIDV). Fifty-six control subjects without renal impairment underwent the same investigation. RESULTS: Infusion of Mch increased FBF significantly less in patients with renal failure than in controls (198 vs 374%, P<0.001), whereas no significant difference was seen regarding the vasodilatation induced by SNP (278 vs 269%). The differences in EDV between the groups were still significant after controlling for hypertension, blood glucose, and serum cholesterol in multiple regression analysis (P<0.001). EDV was related to serum creatinine (r=-0.37, P<0.01), creatinine clearance (r=0.45, P<0.005) and to serum triglyceride levels (r=-0.29, P<0.005) in the CRF group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with moderate CRF have an impaired EDV even after correction for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and this impairment is related to the degree of renal failure.
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