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  • Roloff, Tim C, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative study of methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2164. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Methylation at CpG dinucleotides in genomic DNA is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism of gene expression control in vertebrates. Proteins with a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) can bind to single methylated CpGs and most of them are involved in transcription control. So far, five vertebrate MBD proteins have been described as MBD family members: MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MBD4 and MECP2. RESULTS: We performed database searches for new proteins containing an MBD and identified six amino acid sequences which are different from the previously described ones. Here we present a comparison of their MBD sequences, additional protein motifs and the expression of the encoding genes. A calculated unrooted dendrogram indicates the existence of at least four different groups of MBDs within these proteins. Two of these polypeptides, KIAA1461 and KIAA1887, were only present as predicted amino acid sequences based on a partial human cDNA. We investigated their expression by Northern blot analysis and found transcripts of ~8 kb and ~5 kb respectively, in all eight normal tissues studied. CONCLUSIONS: Eleven polypeptides with a MBD could be identified in mouse and man. The analysis of protein domains suggests a role in transcriptional regulation for most of them. The knowledge of additional existing MBD proteins and their expression pattern is important in the context of Rett syndrome.
  • Chawade, Aakash, 1980, et al. (författare)
  • Putative cold acclimation pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana identified by a combined analysis of mRNA co-expression patterns, promoter motifs and transcription factors
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC GENOMICS. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2164. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background With the advent of microarray technology, it has become feasible to identify virtually all genes in an organism that are induced by developmental or environmental changes. However, relying solely on gene expression data may be of limited value if the aim is to infer the underlying genetic networks. Development of computational methods to combine microarray data with other information sources is therefore necessary. Here we describe one such method. Results By means of our method, previously published Arabidopsis microarray data from cold acclimated plants at six different time points, promoter motif sequence data extracted from ~24,000 Arabidopsis promoters and known transcription factor binding sites were combined to construct a putative genetic regulatory interaction network. The inferred network includes both previously characterised and hitherto un-described regulatory interactions between transcription factor (TF) genes and genes that encode other TFs or other proteins. Part of the obtained transcription factor regulatory network is presented here. More detailed information is available in the additional files. Conclusion The rule-based method described here can be used to infer genetic networks by combining data from microarrays, promoter sequences and known promoter binding sites. This method should in principle be applicable to any biological system. We tested the method on the cold acclimation process in Arabidopsis and could identify a more complex putative genetic regulatory network than previously described. However, it should be noted that information on specific binding sites for individual TFs were in most cases not available. Thus, gene targets for the entire TF gene families were predicted. In addition, the networks were built solely by a bioinformatics approach and experimental verifications will be necessary for their final validation. On the other hand, since our method highlights putative novel interactions, more directed experiments could now be performed.
  • Heidel-Fischer, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • Phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form influence gene expression of the polyphagous comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album).
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 10:1, s. 506-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The mechanisms that shape the host plant range of herbivorous insect are to date not well understood but knowledge of these mechanisms and the selective forces that influence them can expand our understanding of the larger ecological interaction. Nevertheless, it is well established that chemical defenses of plants influence the host range of herbivorous insects. While host plant chemistry is influenced by phylogeny, also the growth forms of plants appear to influence the plant defense strategies as first postulated by Feeny (the "plant apparency" hypothesis). In the present study we aim to investigate the molecular basis of the diverse host plant range of the comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album) by testing differential gene expression in the caterpillars on three host plants that are either closely related or share the same growth form. RESULTS: In total 120 differentially expressed genes were identified in P. c-album after feeding on different host plants, 55 of them in the midgut and 65 in the restbody of the caterpillars. Expression patterns could be confirmed with an independent method for 14 of 27 tested genes. Pairwise similarities in upregulation in the midgut of the caterpillars were higher between plants that shared either growth form or were phylogenetically related. No known detoxifying enzymes were found to be differently regulated in the midgut after feeding on different host plants. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a complex picture of gene expression in response to host plant feeding. While each plant requires a unique gene regulation in the caterpillar, both phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form appear to influence the expression profile of the polyphagous comma butterfly, in agreement with phylogenetic studies of host plant utilization in butterflies.
  • Panchaud, Alexandre, et al. (författare)
  • M-protein and other intrinsic virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes are encoded on an ancient pathogenicity island
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 10:198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The increasing number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes allows comparing their architecture and genetic makeup. Such new information highlights the crucial role of lateral genetic exchanges in bacterial evolution and speciation. Results Here we analyzed the twelve sequenced genomes of Streptococcus pyogenes by a naïve approach that examines the preferential nucleotide usage along the chromosome, namely the usage of G versus C (GC-skew) and T versus A (TA-skew). The cumulative GC-skew plot presented an inverted V-shape composed of two symmetrical linear segments, where the minimum and maximum corresponded to the origin and terminus of DNA replication. In contrast, the cumulative TA-skew presented a V-shape, which segments were interrupted by several steep slopes regions (SSRs), indicative of a different nucleotide composition bias. Each S. pyogenes genome contained up to nine individual SSRs, encompassing all described strain-specific prophages. In addition, each genome contained a similar unique non-phage SSR, the core of which consisted of 31 highly homologous genes. This core includes the M-protein, other mga-related factors and other virulence genes, totaling ten intrinsic virulence genes. In addition to a high content in virulence-related genes and to a peculiar nucleotide bias, this SSR, which is 47 kb-long in a M1GAS strain, harbors direct repeats and a tRNA gene, suggesting a mobile element. Moreover, its complete absence in a M-protein negative group A Streptococcus natural isolate demonstrates that it could be spontaneously lost, but in vitro deletion experiments indicates that its excision occurred at very low rate. The stability of this SSR, combined to its presence in all sequenced S. pyogenes sequenced genome, suggests that it results from an ancient acquisition. Conclusion Thus, this non-phagic SSR is compatible with a pathogenicity island, acquired before S. pyogenes speciation. Its potential excision might bear relevance for vaccine development, because vaccines targeting M-protein might select for M-protein-negative variants that still carry other virulence determinants.
  • Wang, Biao, et al. (författare)
  • Sequencing of the core MHC region of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and comparative genomics of the galliform MHC
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 13, s. 553-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:The MHC, which is regarded as the most polymorphic region in the genomes of jawed vertebrates, plays a central role in the immune system by encoding various proteins involved in the immune response. The chicken MHC-B genomic region has a highly streamlined gene content compared to mammalian MHCs. Its core region includes genes encoding Class I and Class IIB molecules but is only ~92Kb in length. Sequences of other galliform MHCs show varying degrees of similarity as that of chicken. The black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) is a wild galliform bird species which is an important model in conservation genetics and ecology. We sequenced the black grouse core MHC-B region and combined this with available data from related species (chicken, turkey, gold pheasant and quail) to perform a comparative genomics study of the galliform MHC. This kind of analysis has previously been severely hampered by the lack of genomic information on avian MHC regions, and the galliformes is still the only bird lineage where such a comparison is possible.RESULTS:In this study, we present the complete genomic sequence of the MHC-B locus of black grouse, which is 88,390 bp long and contains 19 genes. It shows the same simplicity as, and almost perfect synteny with, the corresponding genomic region of chicken. We also use 454-transcriptome sequencing to verify expression in 17 of the black grouse MHC-B genes. Multiple sequence inversions of the TAPBP gene and TAP1-TAP2 gene block identify the recombination breakpoints near the BF and BLB genes. Some of the genes in the galliform MHC-B region also seem to have been affected by selective forces, as inferred from deviating phylogenetic signals and elevated rates of non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions.CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that there is large synteny between the MHC-B region of the black grouse and that of other galliform birds, but that some duplications and rearrangements have occurred within this lineage. The MHC-B sequence reported here will provide a valuable resource for future studies on the evolution of the avian MHC genes and on links between immunogenetics and ecology of black grouse.
  • Zamani, Neda, et al. (författare)
  • Unsupervised genome-wide recognition of local relationship patterns
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 14, s. 347-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUNDPhenomena such as incomplete lineage sorting, horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication and subsequent sub- and neo-functionalisation can result in distinct local phylogenetic relationships that are discordant with species phylogeny. In order to assess the possible biological roles for these subdivisions, they must first be identified and characterised, preferably on a large scale and in an automated fashion.RESULTSWe developed Saguaro, a combination of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and a Self Organising Map (SOM), to characterise local phylogenetic relationships among aligned sequences using cacti, matrices of pair-wise distance measures. While the HMM determines the genomic boundaries from aligned sequences, the SOM hypothesises new cacti in an unsupervised and iterative fashion based on the regions that were modelled least well by existing cacti. After testing the software on simulated data, we demonstrate the utility of Saguaro by testing two different data sets: (i) 181 Dengue virus strains, and (ii) 5 primate genomes. Saguaro identifies regions under lineage-specific constraint for the first set, and genomic segments that we attribute to incomplete lineage sorting in the second dataset. Intriguingly for the primate data, Saguaro also classified an additional ~3% of the genome as most incompatible with the expected species phylogeny. A substantial fraction of these regions was found to overlap genes associated with both the innate and adaptive immune systems.CONCLUSIONSSaguaro detects distinct cacti describing local phylogenetic relationships without requiring any a priori hypotheses. We have successfully demonstrated Saguaro's utility with two contrasting data sets, one containing many members with short sequences (Dengue viral strains: n = 181, genome size = 10,700 nt), and the other with few members but complex genomes (related primate species: n = 5, genome size = 3 Gb), suggesting that the software is applicable to a wide variety of experimental populations. Saguaro is written in C++, runs on the Linux operating system, and can be downloaded from http://saguarogw.sourceforge.net/.
  • Zetterblad, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Genomics based analysis of interactions between developing B-lymphocytes and stromal cells reveal complex interactions and two-way communication
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2164. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The use of functional genomics has largely increased our understanding of cell biology and promises to help the development of systems biology needed to understand the complex order of events that regulates cellular differentiation in vivo. One model system clearly dependent on the integration of extra and intra cellular signals is the development of B-lymphocytes from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. This developmental pathway involves several defined differentiation stages associated with specific expression of genes including surface markers that can be used for the prospective isolation of the progenitor cells directly from the bone marrow to allow for ex vivo gene expression analysis. The developmental process can be simulated in vitro making it possible to dissect information about cell/cell communication as well as to address the relevance of communication pathways in a rather direct manner. Thus we believe that B-lymphocyte development represents a useful model system to take the first steps towards systems biology investigations in the bone marrow. Results: In order to identify extra cellular signals that promote B lymphocyte development we created a database with approximately 400 receptor ligand pairs and software matching gene expression data from two cell populations to obtain information about possible communication pathways. Using this database and gene expression data from NIH3T3 cells (unable to support B cell development), OP-9 cells (strongly supportive of B cell development), pro-B and pre-B cells as well as mature peripheral B-lineage cells, we were able to identify a set of potential stage and stromal cell restricted communication pathways. Functional analysis of some of these potential ways of communication allowed us to identify BMP-4 as a potent stimulator of B-cell development in vitro. Further, the analysis suggested that there existed possibilities for progenitor B cells to send signals to the stroma. The functional consequences of this were investigated by co-culture experiments revealing that the co-incubation of stromal cells with B cell progenitors altered both the morphology and the gene expression pattern in the stromal cells. Conclusions: We believe that this gene expression data analysis method allows for the identification of functionally relevant interactions and therefore could be applied to other data sets to unravel novel communication pathways.
  • Orzechowski Westholm, Jakub, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Combinatorial control of gene expression by the three yeast repressors Mig1, Mig2 and Mig3
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 9, s. 601-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Expression of a large number of yeast genes is repressed by glucose. The zinc finger protein Mig1 is the main effector in glucose repression, but yeast also has two related proteins: Mig2 and Mig3. We have used microarrays to study global gene expression in all possible combinations of mig1, mig2 and mig3 deletion mutants. Results: Mig1 and Mig2 repress a largely overlapping set of genes on 2% glucose. Genes that are upregulated in a mig1 mig2 double mutant were grouped according to the contribution of Mig2. Most of them show partially redundant repression, with Mig1 being the major repressor, but some genes show complete redundancy, and some are repressed only by Mig1. Several redundantly repressed genes are involved in phosphate metabolism. The promoters of these genes are enriched for Pho4 sites, a novel GGGAGG motif, and a variant Mig1 site which is absent from genes repressed only by Mig1. Genes repressed only by Mig1 on 2% glucose include the hexose transporter gene HXT4, but Mig2 contributes to HXT4 repression on 10% glucose. HXT6 is one of the few genes that are more strongly repressed by Mig2. Mig3 does not seem to overlap in function with Mig1 and Mig2. Instead, Mig3 downregulates the SIR2 gene encoding a histone deacetylase involved in gene silencing and the control of aging. Conclusions: Mig2 fine-tunes glucose repression by targeting a subset of the Mig1-repressed genes, and by responding to higher glucose concentrations. Mig3 does not target the same genes as Mig1 and Mig2, but instead downregulates the SIR2 gene.
  • Ali, Ashfaq, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of potato in response to Phytophthora infestans in compatible and incompatible interactions
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2164. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In order to get global molecular understanding of one of the most important crop diseases worldwide, we investigated compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora infestans and potato (Solanum tuberosum). We used the two most field-resistant potato clones under Swedish growing conditions, which have the greatest known local diversity of P. infestans populations, and a reference compatible cultivar. Results: Quantitative label-free proteomics of 51 apoplastic secretome samples (PXD000435) in combination with genome-wide transcript analysis by 42 microarrays (E-MTAB-1515) were used to capture changes in protein abundance and gene expression at 6, 24 and 72 hours after inoculation with P. infestans. To aid mass spectrometry analysis we generated cultivar-specific RNA-seq data (E-MTAB-1712), which increased peptide identifications by 17%. Components induced only during incompatible interactions, which are candidates for hypersensitive response initiation, include a Kunitz-like protease inhibitor, transcription factors and an RCR3-like protein. More secreted proteins had lower abundance in the compatible interaction compared to the incompatible interactions. Based on this observation and because the well-characterized effector-target C14 protease follows this pattern, we suggest 40 putative effector targets. Conclusions: In summary, over 17000 transcripts and 1000 secreted proteins changed in abundance in at least one time point, illustrating the dynamics of plant responses to a hemibiotroph. Half of the differentially abundant proteins showed a corresponding change at the transcript level. Many putative hypersensitive and effector-target proteins were single representatives of large gene families.
  • Andersson, Karl-Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Interspecific and host-related gene expression patterns in nematode-trapping fungi.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2164. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nematode-trapping fungi are soil-living fungi that capture and kill nematodes using special hyphal structures called traps. They display a large diversity of trapping mechanisms and differ in their host preferences. To provide insights into the genetic basis for this variation, we compared the transcriptome expressed by three species of nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora, Monacrosporium cionopagum and Arthrobotrys dactyloides, which use adhesive nets, adhesive branches or constricting rings, respectively, to trap nematodes) during infection of two different plant-pathogenic nematode hosts (the root knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii).
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