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1.
  • Flensner, Gullvi, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • Sensitivity to heat in MS patients : A factor strongly influencing symptomology - an explorative survey
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC neuroscience (Online). - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2202 .- 1471-2202. ; 11:27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Many individuals diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are sensitive to increased body temperature, which has been recognized as correlating with the symptom of fatigue. The need to explore this association has been highlighted. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of heat sensitivity and its relations to disease course, disability, common MS-related symptoms and ongoing immunosuppressive treatments among individuals 65 years of age or younger diagnosed with MS.Methods: A cross-sectional designed survey was undertaken. A questionnaire was sent to MS-patients with an Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) in the interval of 0-6.5 and who were between 20 and 65 years of age, living in an eastern region of Sweden (n = 334). Besides occurrence of heat sensitivity (Yes/No) and corresponding questions, the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the MS-related symptom checklist and the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire (PDQ) were included. Data were analysed in relation to data level using Chi-square, Mann Whitney U-test, and Student's t-test. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were calculated. In the logistic regression analyses (enter) dichotomized MS-symptoms were used as dependent variables, and EDSS, disease-course, time since onset, heat-sensitivity, age and sex (female/male) were independent variables. In the linear regression analyses, enter, mean FSS and summarized PDQ were entered as dependent variables and EDSS, disease-course, time since onset, heat sensitivity, age and sex (female/male) were independent variables.Results: Of the responding patients (n = 256), 58% reported heat sensitivity. The regression analyses revealed heat sensitivity as a significant factor relating not only to fatigue (p < 0.001), but also to several other common MS symptoms such as pain (p < 0.001), concentration difficulties (p < 0.001), and urination urgency (p = 0.009).Conclusions: Heat sensitivity in MS patients is a key symptom that is highly correlated with disabling symptoms such as fatigue, pain, concentration difficulty and urination urgency. © 2011 Flensner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
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2.
  • Tsuda, Yoshifumi, et al. (författare)
  • Axonal outgrowth is associated with increased ERK 1/2 activation but decreased caspase 3 linked cell death in Schwann cells after immediate nerve repair in rats
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Neuroscience. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2202. ; 12:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) is activated by nerve damage and its activation precedes survival and proliferation of Schwann cells. In contrast, activation of caspase 3, a cysteine protease, is considered as a marker for apoptosis in Schwann cells. In the present study, axonal outgrowth, activation of ERK1/2 by phosphorylation (p-ERK 1/2) and immunoreactivity of cleaved caspase 3 were examined after immediate, delayed, or no repair of transected rat sciatic nerves. Results: Axonal outgrowth, detected by neurofilament staining, was longer after immediate repair than after either the delayed or no repair conditions. Immediate repair also showed a higher expression of p-ERK 1/2 and a lower number of cleaved caspase 3 stained Schwann cells than after delayed nerve repair. If the transected nerve was not repaired a lower level of p-ERK 1/2 was found than in either the immediate or delayed repair conditions. Axonal outgrowth correlated to p-ERK 1/2, but not clearly with cleaved caspase 3. Contact with regenerating axons affected Schwann cells with respect to p-ERK 1/2 and cleaved caspase 3 after immediate nerve repair only. Conclusion: The decreased regenerative capacity that has historically been observed after delayed nerve repair may be related to impaired activation of Schwann cells and increased Schwann cell death. Outgrowing axons influence ERK 1/2 activation and apoptosis of Schwann cells.
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3.
  • Blom, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial distribution of Na+-K+-ATPase in dendritic spines dissected by nanoscale superresolution STED microscopy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC neuroscience (Online). - 1471-2202 .- 1471-2202. ; 12, s. 16-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Na+,K+-ATPase plays an important role for ion homeostasis in virtually all mammalian cells, including neurons. Despite this, there is as yet little known about the isoform specific distribution in neurons. Results: With help of superresolving stimulated emission depletion microscopy the spatial distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase in dendritic spines of cultured striatum neurons have been dissected. The found compartmentalized distribution provides a strong evidence for the confinement of neuronal Na+,K+-ATPase (alpha 3 isoform) in the postsynaptic region of the spine. Conclusions: A compartmentalized distribution may have implications for the generation of local sodium gradients within the spine and for the structural and functional interaction between the sodium pump and other synaptic proteins. Superresolution microscopy has thus opened up a new perspective to elucidate the nature of the physiological function, regulation and signaling role of Na+,K+-ATPase from its topological distribution in dendritic spines.
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4.
  • Sievertzon, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptome analysis in primary neural stem cells using a tag cDNA amplification method
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: BMC neuroscience (Online). - 1471-2202 .- 1471-2202. ; 6:28, s. 13-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Neural stem cells ( NSCs) can be isolated from the adult mammalian brain and expanded in culture, in the form of cellular aggregates called neurospheres. Neurospheres provide an in vitro model for studying NSC behaviour and give information on the factors and mechanisms that govern their proliferation and differentiation. They are also a promising source for cell replacement therapies of the central nervous system. Neurospheres are complex structures consisting of several cell types of varying degrees of differentiation. One way of characterising neurospheres is to analyse their gene expression profiles. The value of such studies is however uncertain since they are heterogeneous structures and different populations of neurospheres may vary significantly in their gene expression. Results: To address this issue, we have used cDNA microarrays and a recently reported tag cDNA amplification method to analyse the gene expression profiles of neurospheres originating from separate isolations of the lateral ventricle wall of adult mice and passaged to varying degrees. Separate isolations as well as consecutive passages yield a high variability in gene expression while parallel cultures yield the lowest variability. Conclusions: We demonstrate a low technical amplification variability using the employed amplification strategy and conclude that neurospheres from the same isolation and passage are sufficiently similar to be used for comparative gene expression analysis.
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5.
  • Ahnstedt, Hilda, et al. (författare)
  • Human cerebrovascular contractile receptors are upregulated via a B-Raf/MEK/ERK-sensitive signaling pathway.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Neuroscience. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2202. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia results in a rapid increase in contractile cerebrovascular receptors, such as the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 1B (5-HT1B), angiotensin II type 1 (AT1), and endothelin type B (ETB) receptors, in the vessel walls within the ischemic region, which further impairs local blood flow and aggravates tissue damage. This receptor upregulation occurs via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We therefore hypothesized an important role for B-Raf, the first signaling molecule in the pathway. To test our hypothesis, human cerebral arteries were incubated at 37°C for 48 h in the absence or presence of a B-Raf inhibitor: SB-386023 or SB-590885. Contractile properties were evaluated in a myograph and protein expression of the individual receptors and activated phosphorylated B-Raf (p-B-Raf) was evaluated immunohistochemically. RESULTS: 5-HT1B, AT1, and ETB receptor-mediated contractions were significantly reduced by application of SB-590885, and to a smaller extent by SB-386023. A marked reduction in AT1 receptor immunoreactivity was observed after treatment with SB-590885. Treatment with SB-590885 and SB-386023 diminished the culture-induced increase of p-B-Raf immunoreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: B-Raf signaling has a key function in the altered expression of vascular contractile receptors observed after organ culture. Therefore, specific targeting of B-Raf might be a novel approach to reduce tissue damage after cerebral ischemia by preventing the previously observed upregulation of contractile receptors in smooth muscle cells.
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6.
  • Ansar, Saema, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of cerebrovascular raf activation attenuates cerebral blood flow and prevents upregulation of contractile receptors after subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Neuroscience. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2202. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Late cerebral ischemia carries high morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the subsequent cerebral ischemia which is associated with upregulation of contractile receptors in the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signal pathway. We hypothesize that SAH initiates cerebrovascular ERK1/2 activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The raf inhibitor will inhibit the molecular events upstream ERK1/2 and may provide a therapeutic window for treatment of cerebral ischemia after SAH. Results: Here we demonstrate that SAH increases the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 in cerebral vessels and reduces the neurology score in rats in additional with the CBF measured by an autoradiographic method. The intracisternal administration of SB-386023-b, a specific inhibitor of raf, given 6 h after SAH, aborts the receptor changes and protects the brain from the development of late cerebral ischemia at 48 h. This is accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cerebrovascular SMC. SAH per se enhances contractile responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and angiotensin II (Ang II), upregulates ETB, 5-HT1B and AT(1) receptor mRNA and protein levels. Treatment with SB-386023-b given as late as at 6 h but not at 12 h after the SAH significantly decreased the receptor upregulation, the reduction in CBF and the neurology score. Conclusion: These results provide evidence for a role of the ERK1/2 pathway in regulation of expression of cerebrovascular SMC receptors. It is suggested that raf inhibition may reduce late cerebral ischemia after SAH and provides a realistic time window for therapy.
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7.
  • Ansar, Saema, et al. (författare)
  • MAPK signaling pathway regulates cerebrovascular receptor expression in human cerebral arteries
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Neuroscience. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2202. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cerebral ischemia results in enhanced expression of contractile cerebrovascular receptors, such as endothelin type B (ETB), 5-hydroxytryptamine type 1B (5-HT1B), angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) and thromboxane (TP) receptors in the cerebral arteries within the ischemic area. The receptor upregulation occurs via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. Previous studies have shown that inhibitors of the MAPK pathway diminished the ischemic area and contractile cerebrovascular receptors after experimental cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine if the upregulation of contractile cerebrovascular receptors after 48 h of organ culture of human cerebral arteries involves MAPK pathways and if it can be prevented by a MEK1/2 inhibitor. Human cerebral arteries were obtained from patients undergoing intracranial tumor surgery. The vessels were divided into ring segments and incubated for 48 h in the presence or absence of the specific MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. The vessels were then examined by using in vitro pharmacological methods and protein immunohistochemistry. Results: After organ culture of the cerebral arteries the contractile responses to endothelin (ET)-1, angiotensin (Ang) II and thromboxane (TP) were enhanced in comparison with fresh human arteries. However, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) induced decreased contractile responses after organ culture as compared to fresh arteries. Incubation with U0126 diminished the maximum contraction elicited by application of ET-1, Ang II and U46619 in human cerebral arteries. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor decreased the contractile response to 5-CT. Immunohistochemistry revealed that organ culture resulted in increased expression of endothelin ETA, endothelin ETB angiotensin AT(2), 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT1B and thromboxane A2 receptors, and elevated levels of activated pERK1/2, all localized to the smooth muscle cells of the cerebral arteries. Co-incubation with U0126 normalized these proteins. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that there is a clear association between human cerebrovascular receptor upregulation via transcription involving activation of the MAPK pathway after organ culture. Inhibition of the MAPK pathways attenuated the vasoconstriction mediated by ET, AT and TP receptors in human cerebral arteries and the enhanced expression of their receptors. The results indicate that MAPK inhibition might be a novel target for treatment of cerebrovascular disorders.
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8.
  • Cao, Lei, et al. (författare)
  • Secondhand smoke exposure induces Raf/ERK/MAPK-mediated upregulation of cerebrovascular endothelin ETA receptors.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Neuroscience. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2202. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking enhances the risk of stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study established an in vivo rat secondhand cigarette smoking (SHS) model and examined the hypothesis that SHS upregulates endothelin receptors with increased cerebrovascular contraction via the Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. RESULTS: Rats were exposed to SHS for up to 8 weeks. The cerebral artery vasoconstriction was recorded by a sensitive myograph. The mRNA and protein expressions for endothelin receptors in cerebral arteries were studied by real-time PCR and Western blot. Compared to fresh air exposed rats, cerebral arteries from SHS rats exhibited stronger contractile responses (P < 0.05) mediated by endothelin type A (ETA) receptors. The expressions of mRNA and protein for ETA receptors in the cerebral arteries from SHS rats were higher (P < 0.05) than that in control. SHS did not affect endothelin type B (ETB) receptor-mediated contractions, mRNA or protein levels. The results suggest that SHS upregulates ETA, but not ETB receptors in vivo. After SHS exposure, the mRNA levels of Raf-1 and ERK1/2, the protein expression of phosphorylated (p)-Raf-1 and p-ERK1/2 were increased (P < 0.05). Raf-1 inhibitor, GW5074 suppressed the enhanced ETA receptor-mediated contraction, mRNA and protein levels induced by SHS. In addition, GW5074 inhibited the SHS-caused increased mRNA and phosphorylated protein levels of Raf-1 and ERK1/2, suggesting that SHS induces activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway. CONCLUSIONS: SHS upregulates cerebrovascular ETA receptors via the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, which provides novel understanding of mechanisms involved in SHS-associated stroke.
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9.
  • Gil, Joana, et al. (författare)
  • Asialoerythropoetin is not effective in the R6/2 line of Huntington's disease mice
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: BMC Neuroscience. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2202. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the HD gene. Both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress have been proposed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HD. Since no effective treatment is available, this study was designed to explore the therapeutic potential of erythropoietin (EPO), a cytokine that has been found to prevent excitotoxicity, and to promote neurogenesis. To avoid the side effects of a raised hematocrit, we used asialoerythropoietin (asialoEPO), a neuroprotective variant of EPO that lacks erythropoietic effects in mice. R6/2 transgenic HD mice were treated with this cytokine from five to twelve weeks of age. Results: We provide new evidence that cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the R6/2 hippocampus is reduced by 50% compared to wild-type littermate controls. However, we found that the asialoEPO treatment did not affect the progression of motor symptoms, weight loss or the neuropathological changes. Furthermore, cell proliferation was not enhanced. Conclusions: We conclude that the chosen protocol of asialoEPO treatment is ineffective in the R6/2 model of HD. We suggest that reduced hippocampal cell proliferation may be an important and novel neuropathological feature in R6 HD mice that could be assessed when evaluating potential therapies.
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10.
  • Henriksson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Protein kinase C inhibition attenuates vascular ETB receptor upregulation and decreases brain damage after cerebral ischemia in rat.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Neuroscience. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2202. ; 8, s. 7-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Protein kinase C (PKC) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of experimental cerebral ischemia. We have previously shown that after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, there is an upregulation of endothelin receptors in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the PKC inhibitor Ro-32-0432 on endothelin receptor upregulation, infarct volume and neurology outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat. Results: At 24 hours after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), the contractile endothelin B receptor mediated response and the endothelin B receptor protein expression were upregulated in the ipsilateral but not the contralateral middle cerebral artery. In Ro-32-0432 treated rats, the upregulated endothelin receptor response was attenuated. Furthermore, Ro-32-0432 treatment decreased the ischemic brain damage significantly and improved neurological scores. Immunohistochemistry showed fainter staining of endothelin B receptor protein in the smooth muscle cells of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery of Ro-32-0432 treated rats compared to control. Conclusion: The results suggest that treatment with Ro-32-0432 in ischemic stroke decreases the ischemic infarction area, neurological symptoms and associated endothelin B receptor upregulation. This provides a new perspective on possible mechanisms of actions of PKC inhibition in cerebral ischemia.
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