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Sökning: L773:1471 2466

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1.
  • Granström, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking particles enhance endothelin A and endothelin B receptor-mediated contractions by enhancing translation in rat bronchi.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2466. ; 6:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Smoking is known to cause chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi and to contribute to airway hyper-reactivity, such as in bronchial asthma. To study the effect of smoking on the endothelin system in rat airways, bronchial segments were exposed to DMSO-soluble smoking particles (DSP) from cigarette smoke, to nicotine and to DMSO, respectively. Methods Isolated rat bronchial segments were cultured for 24 hours in the presence or absence of DSP, nicotine or DMSO alone. Contractile responses to sarafotoxin 6c (a selective agonist for ETB receptors) and endothelin-1 (an ETA and ETB receptor agonist) were studied by use of a sensitive myograph. Before ET-1 was introduced, the ETB receptors were desensitized by use of S6c. The remaining contractility observed was considered to be the result of selective activation of the ETA receptors. ETA and ETB receptor mRNA expression was analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. The location and concentration of ETA and ETB receptors were studied by means of immunohistochemistry together with confocal microscopy after overnight incubation with selective antibodies. Results After being cultured together with DSP for 24 hours the bronchial segments showed an increased contractility mediated by ETA and ETB receptors, whereas culturing them together with nicotine did not affect their contractility. The up-regulation of their contractility was blunted by cycloheximide treatment, a translational inhibitor. No significant change in the expression of ETA and ETB receptor mRNA through exposure to DMSO or to nicotine exposure alone occurred, although immunohistochemistry revealed a clear increase in ETA and ETB receptors in the smooth muscle after incubation in the presence of DSP. Taken as a whole, this is seen as the presence of a translation mechanism. Conclusion The increased contractility of rat bronchi when exposed to DSP appears to be due to a translation mechanism.
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3.
  • McAuley, Daniel F., et al. (författare)
  • Simvastatin decreases the level of heparin-binding protein in patients with acute lung injury
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2466. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Heparin-binding protein is released by neutrophils during inflammation and disrupts the integrity of the alveolar and capillary endothelial barrier implicated in the development of acute lung injury and systemic organ failure. We sought to investigate whether oral administration of simvastatin to patients with acute lung injury reduces plasma heparin-binding protein levels and improves intensive care unit outcome. Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients with acute lung injury with 48 h of onset of acute lung injury (day 0), day 3, and day 7. Patients were given placebo or 80 mg simvastatin for up to 14 days. Plasma heparin-binding protein levels from patients with acute lung injury and healthy volunteers were measured by ELISA. Results: Levels of plasma heparin-binding protein were significantly higher in patients with acute lung injury than healthy volunteers on day 0 (p = 0.011). Simvastatin 80 mg administered enterally for 14 days reduced plasma level of heparin-binding protein in patients. Reduced heparin-binding protein was associated with improved intensive care unit survival. Conclusions: A reduction in heparin-binding protein with simvastatin is a potential mechanism by which the statin may modify outcome from acute lung injury.
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  • Bergquist, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive multiplexed protein quantitation delineates eosinophilic and neutrophilic experimental asthma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - 1471-2466. ; 14:1, s. Art. no. 110-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Improvements in asthma diagnosis and management require deeper understanding of the heterogeneity of the complex airway inflammation. We hypothesise that differences in the two major inflammatory phenotypes of asthma; eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma, will be reflected in the lung protein expression profile of murine asthma models and can be delineated using proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Methods: BAL from mice challenged with ovalbumin (OVA/OVA) alone (standard model of asthma, here considered eosinophilic) or OVA in combination with endotoxin (OVA/LPS, model of neutrophilic asthma) was analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compared with steroid-treated animals and healthy controls. In addition, conventional inflammatory markers were analysed using multiplexed ELISA (Bio-Plex T assay). Multivariate statistics was performed on integrative proteomic fingerprints using principal component analysis. Proteomic data were complemented with lung mechanics and BAL cell counts. Results: Several of the analysed proteins displayed significant differences between the controls and either or both of the two models reflecting eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma. Most of the proteins found with mass spectrometry analysis displayed a considerable increase in neutrophilic asthma compared with the other groups. Conversely, the larger number of the inflammatory markers analysed with Bio-Plex T analysis were found to be increased in the eosinophilic model. In addition, major inflammation markers were correlated to peripheral airway closure, while commonly used asthma biomarkers only reflect central inflammation. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the commercial markers we are currently relying on to diagnose asthma subtypes are not giving us comprehensive or specific enough information. The analysed protein profiles allowed to discriminate the two models and may add useful information for characterization of different asthma phenotypes.
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6.
  • Emtner, Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of patient characteristics, education and knowledge on emergency room visits in patients with asthma and COPD : a descriptive and correlative study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 9, s. 43-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND  Asthma and COPD are major health problems and an extensive burden for the patient and the health care system. Patient education has been recommended, but the influence on knowledge and health outcomes is not fully examined. Our aims were to compare patient characteristics, education and knowledge in patients who had an emergency room (ER) visit, to explore factors related to disease knowledge, and to investigate patient characteristics, patient education and knowledge in relation to further ER visits over a 12 month period. METHODS  Eighty-four patients with asthma and 52 with COPD, who had had an ER visit, were included. They were interviewed by telephone 4 to 6 weeks after the ER visit and followed for a year. RESULTS  Patients with COPD were older, more sedentary, had had more ER visits the previous year, and had more co morbidity than patients with asthma. About 80% of the patients had received information from health professionals or participated in education/rehabilitation, but a minority (< 20%) reported that their knowledge about how to handle the disease was good. Patients with "good knowledge" were younger, were more likely to have asthma diagnose, and had a higher educational background (p < 0.05). Sixty-seven percent of the patients with COPD had repeated ER visits during the following year versus 42% in asthma (p < 0.05) (adjusted HRR: 1.73 (1.03-2.90)). Patients who had had ER visits the year before inclusion had a higher risk of ER visits the following year (adjusted HRR: 3.83 (1.99-7.38)). There were no significant differences regarding patient education and knowledge between the group with and without further ER visits after adjusting for sex, diagnose, age, and educational background. CONCLUSION  Patients with asthma had a better self reported knowledge of disease management and were less likely to have new exacerbations than patients with COPD. Reported level of knowledge was, however, in it self not a predictor of exacerbations. This indicates that information is not sufficient to reduce the burden of disease. Patient education focused on self-management and behavioral change should be emphasized.
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7.
  • Gislason, Thorarinn, et al. (författare)
  • Persistent Chlamydia pneumonia serology is related to a more rapid decline in lung function in women but not in men
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Chlamydia pneumoniae (C pn) infection causes an acute inflammation in the respiratory system that may become persistent, but little is known about the long-term respiratory effects of C pn infections. Aim: To estimate the long term respiratory effects of C pn with change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a main outcome variable.Methods The study comprised of 1109 subjects (500 men and 609 women, mean age 28 ± 6 years) that participated in the Reykjavik Heart Study of the Young. Spirometry and blood samples for measurements of IgG antibodies for C pn were done at inclusion and at the end of the follow-up period (mean follow-up time 27 ± 4 years).Results Having IgG against C pn at both examinations was significantly associated to a larger decrease in FEV1 (6 mL/year) and FVC (7 mL/year) in women but not in men. In women the association between C pn and larger FEV1 decline was only found in women that smoked at baseline where having C pn IgG was associated with 10 mL/year decline compared to smokers without C pn IgG. These results were still significant after adjustment for age, smoking and change in body weight.Conclusion Our results indicate that persistent C pn serology is related to increased decline in lung function in women but not in men. This effect was, however, primarily found in smoking women. This study is a further indication that the pathophysiological process leading to lung impairment may differ between men and women.
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8.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies : patterns and implications
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 14, s. 63-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). METHODS: Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). RESULTS: Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95%CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA long-term participating smokers (relative deviation 17% (smokers) and 44% (10-20 pack years)). CONCLUSIONS: We found comparable patterns of long-term participation and loss to follow-up in RHINE, I-ECRHS and ISAYA. Baseline prevalence estimates for long-term participants were slightly lower than for the total baseline population, while exposure-outcome associations were mainly unchanged by loss to follow-up.
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9.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies - patterns and implications
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 14, s. 63-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Methods: Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). Results: Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95% CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA long-term participating smokers (relative deviation 17% (smokers) and 44% (10-20 pack years)). Conclusions: We found comparable patterns of long-term participation and loss to follow-up in RHINE, I-ECRHS and ISAYA. Baseline prevalence estimates for long-term participants were slightly lower than for the total baseline population, while exposure-outcome associations were mainly unchanged by loss to follow-up.
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10.
  • Jönsson, Ulla-Britt, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein)-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 10, s. 36-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)).Methods: Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757) were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C) (rs2073342), ECP562(G>C) (rs2233860) and ECP c.-38(A>C) (rs2233859) were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions.Results: Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C) and ECP562(G>C) genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C) genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic.Conclusion: Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma.
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