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Sökning: L773:1476 5578 > (2020-2022) > (2021)

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  • Föregående 123[4]567Nästa
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  • Johansson Capusan, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Re-examining the link between childhood maltreatment and substance use disorder: a prospective, genetically informative study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:7, s. 3201-3209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Childhood maltreatment is considered a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD), but this is largely based on retrospective self-reports that are subject to recall bias, designs that do not control for familial confounding, or both. The specific contribution of childhood maltreatment to SUD risk thus remains unclear. Here, we evaluated this contribution in a prospective cohort with objectively recorded childhood maltreatment, using a design that allows controlling for familial confounding. We used medical records and registers to study 525 young adults (20-37 years) with prospectively and objectively documented severe maltreatment exposure, 1979 clinical controls (unexposed former child and adolescent psychiatry patients), 1388 matched healthy controls; and their siblings and cousins. We examined the association between maltreatment and SUD using Cox regression models in the population, as well as stratified within siblings in the same family. SUD risk was significantly increased with childhood maltreatment exposure (crude HR: 6.61, 95% CI: 5.81-7.53; HR adjusted for sex, birthyear, externalizing problems, parents SUD and socioeconomic factors: 3.50, 95% CI 2.95, 4.16). An approximately threefold elevated SUD risk remained when comparing exposed individuals with their unexposed siblings (adjusted HR: 3.12, 95% CI 2.21, 4.42). We provide estimates of the association between childhood maltreatment and SUD accounting for possible confounds of both recall bias and familial factors. When familial confounding is controlled for, SUD risk attributable to severe childhood maltreatment is decreased, but nevertheless considerable. These findings establish a specific contribution of childhood maltreatment to SUD, underscoring the need for SUD prevention in young people exposed to maltreatment.
  • Kang, M. S., et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-beta modulates the association between neurofilament light chain and brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 5989-6001
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilament light chain (NFL) measurement has been gaining strong support as a clinically useful neuronal injury biomarker for various neurodegenerative conditions. However, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), its reflection on regional neuronal injury in the context of amyloid pathology remains unclear. This study included 83 cognitively normal (CN), 160 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 73 AD subjects who were further classified based on amyloid-beta (A beta) status as positive or negative (A beta+ vs A beta-). In addition, 13 rats (5 wild type and 8 McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic (Tg)) were examined. In the clinical study, reduced precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampal grey matter density were significantly associated with increased NFL concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or plasma in MCI A beta+ and AD A beta+. Moreover, AD A beta+ showed a significant association between the reduced grey matter density in the AD-vulnerable regions and increased NFL concentrations in CSF or plasma. Congruently, Tg rats recapitulated and validated the association between CSF NFL and grey matter density in the parietotemporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus in the presence of amyloid pathology. In conclusion, reduced grey matter density and elevated NFL concentrations in CSF and plasma are associated in AD-vulnerable regions in the presence of amyloid positivity in the AD clinical spectrum and amyloid Tg rat model. These findings further support the NFL as a neuronal injury biomarker in the research framework of AD biomarker classification and for the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials.
  • Karikari, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic performance and prediction of clinical progression of plasma phospho-tau181 in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26, s. 429-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whilst cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers for amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau pathologies are accurate for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), their broad implementation in clinical and trial settings are restricted by high cost and limited accessibility. Plasma phosphorylated-tau181 (p-tau181) is a promising blood-based biomarker that is specific for AD, correlates with cerebral Aβ and tau pathology, and predicts future cognitive decline. In this study, we report the performance of p-tau181 in >1000 individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), including cognitively unimpaired (CU), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia patients characterized by Aβ PET. We confirmed that plasma p-tau181 is increased at the preclinical stage of Alzheimer and further increases in MCI and AD dementia. Individuals clinically classified as AD dementia but having negative Aβ PET scans show little increase but plasma p-tau181 is increased if CSF Aβ has already changed prior to Aβ PET changes. Despite being a multicenter study, plasma p-tau181 demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy to identify AD dementia (AUC=85.3%; 95% CI, 81.4-89.2%), as well as to distinguish between Aβ- and Aβ+ individuals along the Alzheimer's continuum (AUC=76.9%; 95% CI, 74.0-79.8%). Higher baseline concentrations of plasma p-tau181 accurately predicted future dementia and performed comparably to the baseline prediction of CSF p-tau181. Longitudinal measurements of plasma p-tau181 revealed low intra-individual variability, which could be of potential benefit in disease-modifying trials seeking a measurable response to a therapeutic target. This study adds significant weight to the growing body of evidence in the use of plasma p-tau181 as a non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for AD, regardless of clinical stage, which would be of great benefit in clinical practice and a large cost-saving in clinical trial recruitment.
  • Kowalec, Kaarina, et al. (författare)
  • Increased schizophrenia family history burden and reduced premorbid IQ in treatment-resistant schizophrenia : a Swedish National Register and Genomic Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 4487-4495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A high proportion of those with schizophrenia experience treatment non-response, placing them at higher risk for mortality and suicide attempts, compared to treatment responders. The clinical, social, and economic burden of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are substantial. Previous genomic and epidemiological studies of TRS were often limited by sample size or lack of comprehensive genomic data. We aimed to systematically understand the clinical, demographic, and genomic correlates of TRS using epidemiological and genetic epidemiological modelling in a Swedish national population sample (n = 24,706) and then in a subgroup with common variant genetic risk scores, rare copy-number variant burden, and rare exonic burden (n = 4936). Population-based analyses identified increasing schizophrenia family history to be significantly associated with TRS (highest quartile of familial burden vs. lowest: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.31, P = 4.8 × 10-8). In males, a decrease of premorbid IQ of one standard deviation was significantly associated with greater risk of TRS (minimal aOR: 0.94, P = 0.002). In a subset of cases with extensive genomic data, we found no significant association between the genetic risk scores of four psychiatric disorders and two cognitive traits with TRS (schizophrenia genetic risk score: aOR = 1.07, P = 0.067). The association between copy number variant and rare variant burden measures and TRS did not reach the pre-defined statistical significance threshold (all P ≥ 0.005). In conclusion, direct measures of genomic risk were not associated with TRS; however, premorbid IQ in males and schizophrenia family history were significantly correlated with TRS and points to new insights into the architecture of TRS.
  • Kuja-Halkola, Ralf, et al. (författare)
  • Do borderline personality disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder co-aggregate in families? : A population-based study of 2 million Swedes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:1, s. 341-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale family studies on the co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are lacking. Thus, we aimed to estimate the co-occurrence and familial co-aggregation of clinically ascertained ADHD and BPD diagnoses using the entire Swedish population. In a register-based cohort design we included individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001, and identified their diagnoses during 1997-2013; in total, 2,113,902 individuals were included in the analyses. We obtained clinical diagnoses of ADHD and BPD from inpatient and outpatient care. Individuals with an ADHD diagnosis had an adjusted (for birth year, sex, and birth order) odds ratio (aOR) of 19.4 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 18.6-20.4) of also having a BPD diagnosis, compared to individuals not diagnosed with ADHD. Having a sibling with ADHD also increased the risk for BPD (monozygotic twins, aOR = 11.2, 95% CI = 3.0-42.2; full siblings, aOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 2.6-3.1; maternal half-siblings, aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7; paternal half-siblings, aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3-1.7). Cousins also had an increased risk. The strength of the association between ADHD and BPD was similar in females and males, and full siblings showed similar increased risks regardless of sex. Among both males and females, ADHD and BPD co-occur within individuals and co-aggregate in relatives; the pattern suggests shared genetic factors and no robust evidence for etiologic sex differences was found. Clinicians should be aware of increased risks for BPD in individuals with ADHD and their relatives, and vice versa.
  • Kumar, Amit, et al. (författare)
  • Astroglial tracer BU99008 detects multiple binding sites in Alzheimer's disease brain
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:10, s. 5833-5847
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With reactive astrogliosis being established as one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there is high interest in developing novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracers to detect early astrocyte reactivity. BU99008, a novel astrocytic PET ligand targeting imidazoline-2 binding sites (I2BS) on astrocytes, might be a suitable candidate. Here we demonstrate for the first time that BU99008 could visualise reactive astrogliosis in postmortem AD brains and propose a multiple binding site [Super-high-affinity (SH), High-affinity (HA) and Low-affinity (LA)] model for BU99008, I2BS specific ligands (2-BFI and BU224) and deprenyl in AD and control (CN) brains. The proportion (%) and affinities of these sites varied significantly between the BU99008, 2-BFI, BU224 and deprenyl in AD and CN brains. Regional binding studies demonstrated significantly higher 3H-BU99008 binding in AD brain regions compared to CN. Comparative autoradiography studies reinforced these findings, showing higher specific binding for 3H-BU99008 than 3H-Deprenyl in sporadic AD brain compared to CN, implying that they might have different targets. The data clearly shows that BU99008 could detect I2BS expressing reactive astrocytes with good selectivity and specificity and hence be a potential attractive clinical astrocytic PET tracer for gaining further insight into the role of reactive astrogliosis in AD.
  • Landén, Mikael, 1966, et al. (författare)
  • Brain aging in major depressive disorder: results from the ENIGMA major depressive disorder working group
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 5124-5139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of brain atrophy, aging-related diseases, and mortality. We examined potential advanced brain aging in adult MDD patients, and whether this process is associated with clinical characteristics in a large multicenter international dataset. We performed a mega-analysis by pooling brain measures derived from T1-weighted MRI scans from 19 samples worldwide. Healthy brain aging was estimated by predicting chronological age (18–75 years) from 7 subcortical volumes, 34 cortical thickness and 34 surface area, lateral ventricles and total intracranial volume measures separately in 952 male and 1236 female controls from the ENIGMA MDD working group. The learned model coefficients were applied to 927 male controls and 986 depressed males, and 1199 female controls and 1689 depressed females to obtain independent unbiased brain-based age predictions. The difference between predicted “brain age” and chronological age was calculated to indicate brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD). On average, MDD patients showed a higher brain-PAD of +1.08 (SE 0.22) years (Cohen’s d = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.08–0.20) compared with controls. However, this difference did not seem to be driven by specific clinical characteristics (recurrent status, remission status, antidepressant medication use, age of onset, or symptom severity). This highly powered collaborative effort showed subtle patterns of age-related structural brain abnormalities in MDD. Substantial within-group variance and overlap between groups were observed. Longitudinal studies of MDD and somatic health outcomes are needed to further assess the clinical value of these brain-PAD estimates. © 2020, The Author(s).
  • Lazarevic, V, et al. (författare)
  • Ketamine decreases neuronally released glutamate via retrograde stimulation of presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:12, s. 7425-7435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ketamine produces a rapid antidepressant response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but the underlying mechanisms appear multifaceted. One hypothesis, proposes that by antagonizing NMDA receptors on GABAergic interneurons, ketamine disinhibits afferens to glutamatergic principal neurons and increases extracellular glutamate levels. However, ketamine seems also to reduce rapid glutamate release at some synapses. Therefore, clinical studies in MDD patients have stressed the need to identify mechanisms whereby ketamine decreases presynaptic activity and glutamate release. In the present study, the effect of ketamine and its antidepressant metabolite, (2R,6R)-HNK, on neuronally derived glutamate release was examined in rodents. We used FAST methodology to measure depolarization-evoked extracellular glutamate levels in vivo in freely moving or anesthetized animals, synaptosomes to detect synaptic recycling ex vivo and primary cortical neurons to perform functional imaging and to examine intracellular signaling in vitro. In all these versatile approaches, ketamine and (2R,6R)-HNK reduced glutamate release in a manner which could be blocked by AMPA receptor antagonism. Antagonism of adenosine A1 receptors, which are almost exclusively expressed at nerve terminals, also counteracted ketamine’s effect on glutamate release and presynaptic activity. Signal transduction studies in primary neuronal cultures demonstrated that ketamine reduced P-T286-CamKII and P-S9-Synapsin, which correlated with decreased synaptic vesicle recycling. Moreover, systemic administration of A1R antagonist counteracted the antidepressant-like actions of ketamine and (2R,6R)-HNK in the forced swim test. To conclude, by studying neuronally released glutamate, we identified a novel retrograde adenosinergic feedback mechanism that mediate inhibitory actions of ketamine on glutamate release that may contribute to its rapid antidepressant action.
  • Lee, BK, et al. (författare)
  • Developmental vitamin D and autism spectrum disorders: findings from the Stockholm Youth Cohort
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:5, s. 1578-1588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Animal studies indicate that early life vitamin D is crucial for proper neurodevelopment. Few studies have examined whether maternal and neonatal vitamin D concentrations influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were sampled from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a register-based cohort in Sweden. Concentrations of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were assessed from maternal and neonatal biosamples using a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. The maternal sample consisted of 449 ASD cases and 574 controls, the neonatal sample: 1399 ASD cases and 1607 controls; and the paired maternal-neonatal sample: 340 ASD cases and 426 controls. Maternal 25OHD was not associated with child ASD in the overall sample. However, in Nordic-born mothers, maternal 25OHD insufficiency (25 − <50 nmol/L) at ~11 weeks gestation was associated with 1.58 times higher odds of ASD (95% CI: 1.00, 2.49) as compared with 25OHD sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L). Neonatal 25OHD < 25 nmol/L was associated with 1.33 times higher odds of ASD (95% CI: 1.02, 1.75) as compared with 25OHD ≥ 50 nmol/L. Sibling-matched control analyses indicated these associations were not likely due to familial confounding. Children with both maternal 25OHD and neonatal 25OHD below the median had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.86) times the odds of ASD compared with children with maternal and neonatal 25OHD both below the median. Our results are consistent with an increasing body of evidence suggesting that vitamin D concentrations in early life may be associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including ASD.
  • Lemoine, Laetitia, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid, tau, and astrocyte pathology in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease variants : A beta PParc and PSEN1DE9
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:10, s. 5609-5619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) may be associated with atypical amyloid beta deposits in the brain. In vivo amyloid imaging using(11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) tracer has shown differences in binding between brains from ADAD and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) patients. To gain further insight into the various pathological characteristics of these genetic variants, we performed large frozen hemisphere autoradiography and brain homogenate binding assays with(3)H-PiB,H-3-MK6240-H-3-THK5117, and(3)H-deprenyl for detection of amyloid fibrils, tau depositions, and activated astrocytes, respectively, in twoA beta PParcmutation carriers, onePSEN1 Delta E9mutation carrier, and three sAD cases. The results were compared with Abeta 40, Abeta 42, AT8, and GFAP immunostaining, respectively, as well as with Congo red and Bielschowsky. PiB showed a very low binding inA beta PParc. A high binding was observed inPSEN1 Delta E9and in sAD tissues but with different binding patterns. Comparable(3)H-THK5117 and(3)H-deprenyl brain homogenate binding was observed forA beta PParc,PSEN1 Delta E9, and sAD, respectively. Some differences were observed between(3)H-MK6240 and(3)H-THK5117 in ADAD. A positive correlation between(3)H-deprenyl and(3)H-THK5117 binding was observed inA beta PParc, while no such correlation was found inPSEN1 Delta E9and sAD. Our study demonstrates differences in the properties of the amyloid plaques between two genetic variants of AD and sAD. Despite the lack of measurable amyloid fibrils by PiB in theA beta PParccases, high regional tau and astrocyte binding was observed. The lack of correlation between(3)H-deprenyl and(3)H-THK5117 binding inPSEN1 Delta E9and sAD in contrast of the positive correlation observed in theA beta PParccases suggest differences in the pathological cascade between variants of AD that warrant further exploration in vivo.
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