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  • Adamsson Eryd, Samuel, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of Coronary Events and Case Fatality Rate in Relation to Blood Lymphocyte and Neutrophil Counts.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1524-4636. ; 32, s. 533-837
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Elevated levels of blood leukocytes have been associated with acute coronary events (CEs), but data on leukocyte subclasses are limited. This study aimed to explore whether blood lymphocyte and neutrophil counts are associated with incidence of CEs and with fatal outcome in subjects who subsequently experienced a first CE. METHODS AND RESULTS: Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were measured in 27 419 subjects from the general population without a history of CEs, heart failure, or atrial fibrillation. Incidence of CEs was studied in relation to leukocyte counts during a mean follow-up of 13.6 years. Neutrophil but not lymphocyte counts were significantly associated with incidence of CEs. After adjustments for confounding factors, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.00 (reference), 1.07 (0.94-1.23), 1.09 (0.95-1.25), and 1.39 (1.22-1.59) for subjects with neutrophils in the first, second, third, and fourth (highest) sex-specific quartiles, respectively (P for trend <0.001). Of the 1965 subject who had a CE, 471 subjects died on the first day of the CE, in- or outside hospital. The proportions of subjects who died the first day were 19%, 21%, 25%, and 28%, respectively in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles (P for trend <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased neutrophil counts are associated with incidence of CEs and increased case-fatality rate after a CE.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins is the hallmark of the dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. - 1524-4636 .- 1079-5642. ; 28:7, s. 1225-36
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin resistance is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome and often progresses to type 2 diabetes. Both insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are characterized by dyslipidemia, which is an important and common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Diabetic dyslipidemia is a cluster of potentially atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities that are metabolically interrelated. Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental defect is an overproduction of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, which initiates a sequence of lipoprotein changes, resulting in higher levels of remnant particles, smaller LDL, and lower levels of high-density liporotein (HDL) cholesterol. These atherogenic lipid abnormalities precede the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by several years, and it is thus important to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the overproduction of large VLDL particles. Here, we review the pathophysiology of VLDL biosynthesis and metabolism in the metabolic syndrome. We also review recent research investigating the relation between hepatic accumulation of lipids and insulin resistance, and sources of fatty acids for liver fat and VLDL biosynthesis. Finally, we briefly discuss current treatments for lipid management of dyslipidemia and potential future therapeutic targets.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Overproduction of VLDL1 driven by hyperglycemia is a dominant feature of diabetic dyslipidemia
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. - 1524-4636 .- 1079-5642. ; 25:8, s. 1697-703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the synthesis and metabolism of VLDL1 and VLDL2 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and nondiabetic subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a novel multicompartmental model to simultaneously determine the kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B and triglyceride (TG) in VLDL1 and VLDL2 after a bolus injection of [2H3]leucine and [2H5]glycerol and to follow the catabolism and transfer of the lipoprotein particles. Our results show that the overproduction of VLDL particles in DM2 is explained by enhanced secretion of VLDL1 apoB and TG. Direct production of VLDL2 apoB and TG was not influenced by diabetes per se. The production rates of VLDL1 apoB and TG were closely related, as were the corresponding pool sizes. VLDL1 and VLDL2 compositions did not differ in subjects with DM2 and controls, and the TG to apoB ratio of newly synthesized particles was very similar in the 2 groups. Plasma glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids together explained 55% of the variation in VLDL1 TG production rate. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance and DM2 are associated with excess hepatic production of VLDL1 particles similar in size and composition to those in nondiabetic subjects. We propose that hyperglycemia is the driving force that aggravates overproduction of VLDL1 in DM2.
  • Ahmad, Shafqat, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-Based Elevated Triglycerides and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk in the Women's Genome Health Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:1, s. 97-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective- Higher triglyceride (TG) is a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but paradoxically, genetic susceptibility for higher TG has been associated with lower T2DM risk. There is also evidence that the genetic association may be modified by baseline TG. Whether such associations can be replicated and the interaction is selective for certain TG-rich lipoprotein particles remains to be explored.Approach and Results-Cox regression involving TG, TG-rich lipoprotein particles, and genetic determinants of TG was performed among 15 813 participants with baseline fasting status in the WGHS (Women's Genome Health Study), including 1453 T2DM incident cases during a mean 18.6 (SD= 5.3) years of follow-up. A weighted, 40-single-nucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score was inversely associated with incident T2DM (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.66 [0.580.75]/ 10-TG risk alleles; P< 0.0001) with adjustment for baseline body mass index, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and TG. TG-associated risk was higher among individuals in the low compared with the high 40-singlenucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score tertile (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.98 [1.83-2.14] versus 1.68 [1.58-1.80] per mmol/L; P-interaction = 0.0007). In TG-adjusted analysis, large and medium but not small TG-rich lipoprotein particles were associated with higher T2DM incidence for successively lower 40-single-nucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score tertiles, P-interaction = 0.013, 0.012, and 0.620 across tertiles, respectively.Conclusions-Our results confirm the previous observations of the paradoxical associations of TG with T2DM while focusing attention on the larger TG-rich lipoprotein particle subfractions, suggesting their importance in clinical profiling of T2DM risk.
  • Akinkuolie, Akintunde O, et al. (författare)
  • Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2, Vascular Inflammation, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. - 1524-4636. ; 39:6, s. 1182-1190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective- Inflammation is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). sPLA2-IIA (group IIA secretory phospholipase A2) plays an integral role in regulating vascular inflammation. Although studies investigated sPLA2-IIA in secondary prevention, we prospectively evaluated sPLA2-IIA mass and genetic variants with CVD events in a primary prevention population with chronic inflammation. Approach and Results- The JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin) randomized participants with LDL (low-density lipoprotein) <130 mg/dL and hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) ≥2 mg/L to high-intensity rosuvastatin versus placebo. Baseline and 1-year plasma sPLA2-IIA mass was measured (N=11 269 baseline; N=9620 1 year). We also identified genetic variants influencing sPLA2-IIA using genome-wide association and examined them with CVD. Three hundred thirteen incident CVD events occurred during follow-up. Baseline sPLA2-IIA mass (median, 25th-75th percentile: 3.81, 2.49-6.03 ng/mL) was associated with increased risk of CVD: risk factor-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI; P) per SD increment: 1.22 (1.08-1.38; P=0.002). This remained significant (1.18; 1.04-1.35; P=0.01) after incrementally adjusting for hsCRP. Similar estimates were observed in rosuvastatin and placebo groups ( P treatment interaction>0.05). The rs11573156C variant in PLA2G2A (encoding sPLA2-IIA) had the strongest effect on sPLA2-II: median (25th-75th percentile, ng/mL) for CC and GG genotypes: 2.79 (1.97-4.01) and 7.38 (5.38-10.19), respectively; and had nonsignificant trend for higher CVD risk (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.89-1.38; P=0.34). Conclusions- In the JUPITER population recruited on chronic inflammation, sPLA2-IIA mass was associated with CVD risk relating to vascular inflammation not fully reflected by hsCRP. Additional studies, including larger functional genetic and clinical studies, are needed to determine whether sPLA2-IIA may be a potential pharmacological target for primary prevention of CVD. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00239681.
  • Ali, Zaheer, et al. (författare)
  • Intussusceptive Vascular Remodeling Precedes Pathological Neovascularization
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:7, s. 1402-1418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective—Pathological neovascularization is crucial for progression and morbidity of serious diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. While mechanisms of ongoing pathological neovascularization have been extensively studied, the initiating pathological vascular remodeling (PVR) events, which precede neovascularization remains poorly understood. Here, we identify novel molecular and cellular mechanisms of preneovascular PVR, by using the adult choriocapillaris as a model.Approach and Results—Using hypoxia or forced overexpression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in the subretinal space to induce PVR in zebrafish and rats respectively, and by analyzing choriocapillaris membranes adjacent to choroidal neovascular lesions from age-related macular degeneration patients, we show that the choriocapillaris undergo robust induction of vascular intussusception and permeability at preneovascular stages of PVR. This PVR response included endothelial cell proliferation, formation of endothelial luminal processes, extensive vesiculation and thickening of the endothelium, degradation of collagen fibers, and splitting of existing extravascular columns. RNA-sequencing established a role for endothelial tight junction disruption, cytoskeletal remodeling, vesicle- and cilium biogenesis in this process. Mechanistically, using genetic gain- and loss-of-function zebrafish models and analysis of primary human choriocapillaris endothelial cells, we determined that HIF (hypoxia-induced factor)-1α-VEGF-A-VEGFR2 signaling was important for hypoxia-induced PVR.Conclusions—Our findings reveal that PVR involving intussusception and splitting of extravascular columns, endothelial proliferation, vesiculation, fenestration, and thickening is induced before neovascularization, suggesting that identifying and targeting these processes may prevent development of advanced neovascular disease in the future.Visual Overview—An online visual overview is available for this article.
  • An, Xiaojin, et al. (författare)
  • Endothelial cells require related transcription enhancer factor-1 for cell-cell connections through the induction of gap junction proteins.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 32:8, s. 1951-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Capillary network formation represents a specialized endothelial cell function and is a prerequisite to establish a continuous vessel lumen. Formation of endothelial cell connections that form the vascular structure is regulated, at least in part, at the transcriptional level. We report here that related transcription enhancer factor-1 (RTEF-1) plays an important role in vascular structure formation.METHODS AND RESULTS: Knockdown of RTEF-1 by small interfering RNA or blockage of RTEF-1 function by the transcription enhancer activators domain decreased endothelial connections in a Matrigel assay, whereas overexpression of RTEF-1 in endothelial cells resulted in a significant increase in cell connections and aggregation. In a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, endothelial-specific RTEF-1 overexpressing mice had enhanced angiogenic sprouting and vascular structure remodeling, resulting in the formation of a denser and more highly interconnected superficial capillary plexus. Mechanistic studies revealed that RTEF-1 induced the expression of functional gap junction proteins including connexin 43, connexin 40, and connexin 37. Blocking connexin 43 function inhibited RTEF-1-induced endothelial cell connections and aggregation.CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel insights into the transcriptional control of endothelial function in the coordination of cell-cell connections.
  • Andersen, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • C-X-C Ligand 16 Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Death and Morbidity in Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:11, s. 2402-2410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:The chemokine CXCL16 (C-X-C motif ligand 16) is a scavenger receptor for OxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoproteins) and involved in inflammation at sites of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the association of CXCL16 with clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome.Approach and Results:Serial measurements of CXCL16 were performed in a subgroup of 5142 patients randomized in the PLATO trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcome). Associations between CXCL16 and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and the individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. The hazard ratio per 50% increase in admission levels of CXCL16 analyzed as continuous variable was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.44-1.88), P<0.0001. This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for randomized treatment, clinical variables, CRP (C-reactive protein), leukocytes, cystatin C, NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), troponin T, GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15), and other biomarkers; hazard ratio 1.23 (1.05-1.45), P=0.0126. The admission level of CXCL16 was independently associated with cardiovascular death (1.50 [1.17-1.92], P=0.0014) but not with ischemic events alone, in fully adjusted analyses. No statistically independent association was found between CXCL16 measured at 1 month, or change in CXCL16 from admission to 1 month, and clinical outcomes.Conclusions:In patients with acute coronary syndrome, admission level of CXCL16 is independently related to adverse clinical outcomes, mainly driven by an association to cardiovascular death. Thus, CXCL16 measurement may enhance risk stratification in patients with this condition.
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