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  • Adage, Tiziana, et al. (författare)
  • Hypothalamic, metabolic, and behavioral responses to pharmacological inhibition of CNS melanocortin signaling in rats
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience. - 0270-6474 .- 1529-2401. ; 21:10, s. 3639-3645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CNS melanocortin (MC) system is implicated as a mediator of the central effects of leptin, and reduced activity of the CNS MC system promotes obesity in both rodents and humans. Because activation of CNS MC receptors has direct effects on autonomic outflow and metabolism, we hypothesized that food intake- independent mechanisms contribute to development of obesity induced by pharmacological blockade of MC receptors in the brain and that changes in hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems known to regulate weight gain [i. e., corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine- amphetamine- related transcript (CART), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and neuropeptide Y (NPY)] would trigger this effect. Relative to vehicle- treated controls, third intracerebroventricular (i3vt) administration of the MC receptor antagonist SHU9119 to rats for 11 d doubled food and water intake (toward the end of treatment) and increased body weight (similar to 14%) and fat content (similar to 90%), hepatic glycogen content (similar to 40%), and plasma levels of cholesterol (similar to 48%), insulin (similar to 259%), glucagon (similar to 80%), and leptin (similar to 490%), whereas spontaneous locomotor activity and body temperature were reduced. Pair- feeding of i3vt SHU9119- treated animals to i3vt vehicle- treated controls normalized plasma levels of insulin, glucagon, and hepatic glycogen content, but only partially reversed the elevations of plasma cholesterol (similar to 31%) and leptin (similar to 104%) and body fat content (similar to 27%). Reductions in body temperature and locomotor activity induced by i3vt SHU9119 were not reversed by pair feeding, but rather were more pronounced. None of the effects found can be explained by peripheral action of the compound. The obesity effects occurred despite a lack in neuropeptide expression responses in the neuroanatomical range selected across the arcuate (i. e., CART, POMC, and NPY) and paraventricular (i. e., CRH) hypothalamus. The results indicate that reduced activity of the CNS MC pathway promotes fat deposition via both food intake- dependent and -independent mechanisms.
  • Adermark, Louise, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Combined activation of L-type Ca2+ channels and synaptic transmission is sufficient to induce striatal long-term depression.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. - 1529-2401. ; 27:25, s. 6781-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Changes in synaptic strength at striatal synapses, such as long-term depression (LTD), may be involved in striatal-based learning and memory. Several molecular mechanisms have been implicated in striatal LTD, but it is not clear which mechanisms are crucial for LTD induction. We found that the activation of L-type calcium channels by 2,5-dimethyl-4-[2-(phenylmethyl)benzoyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid methylester (FPL64176), combined with modest postsynaptic depolarization and synaptic activation, is sufficient to induce robust LTD (FPL-LTD). The L-channel activator 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (Bay K 8644) has a similar action. FPL-LTD occludes LTD induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS-LTD) and requires elevated postsynaptic calcium and retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, properties similar to those of HFS-LTD. In contrast, FPL-LTD does not require the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), phospholipase C, or dopamine D2 receptors. FPL-LTD induction also requires afferent stimulation. These findings suggest a scenario in which L-type calcium channel activation is a crucial switch for LTD induction, and mGluRs and D2 receptors can be bypassed if this channel is activated.
  • Adermark, Louise, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Frequency-dependent inversion of net striatal output by endocannabinoid-dependent plasticity at different synaptic inputs.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. - 1529-2401. ; 29:5, s. 1375-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding how striatal neurons integrate glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs is essential for understanding the control of movement and the formation of striatal-based memories. Here we show that GABAergic synapses on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are more sensitive than glutamatergic synapses on the same cells to endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling, and that protocols that induce short-lasting cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB(1)R)-dependent depression at glutamatergic synapses are sufficient to induce long-term depression (LTD) at GABAergic synapses. We also show that the frequency and duration of glutamatergic input are strong determinants of the net effect of eCB signaling, and key factors in determining if LTD has a net disinhibitory or inhibitory action in striatum. Plastic changes in net output from striatal MSNs are thus a complex function of disinhibitory and inhibitory LTD combined with other forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation at excitatory synapses.
  • Aguado, T, et al. (författare)
  • The endocannabinoid system promotes astroglial differentiation by acting on neural progenitor cells
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience. - : Society for Neuroscience. - 1529-2401. ; 26:5, s. 1551-1561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endocannabinoids exert an important neuromodulatory role via presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors and may also participate in the control of neural cell death and survival. The function of the endocannabinoid system has been extensively studied in differentiated neurons, but its potential role in neural progenitor cells remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the CB1 receptor and the endocannabinoid-inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase are expressed, both in vitro and in vivo, in postnatal radial glia (RC2(+) cells) and in adult nestin type I (nestin (+)GFAP(+)) neural progenitor cells. Cell culture experiments show that CB1 receptor activation increases progenitor proliferation and differentiation into astroglial cells in vitro. In vivo analysis evidences that, in postnatal CB1-/- mouse brain, progenitor proliferation and astrogliogenesis are impaired. Likewise, in adult CB1-deficient mice, neural progenitor proliferation is decreased but is increased in fatty acid amide hydrolase-deficient mice. In addition, endocannabinoid signaling controls neural progenitor differentiation in the adult brain by promoting astroglial differentiation of newly born cells. These results show a novel physiological role of endocannabinoids, which constitute a new family of signaling cues involved in the regulation of neural progenitor cell function.
  • Ahlenius, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptor Protein LNK Is a Negative Regulator of Brain Neural Stem Cell Proliferation after Stroke.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. - : Society for Neuroscience. - 1529-2401. ; 32:15, s. 5151-5164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ischemic stroke causes transient increase of neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and migration of newly formed neuroblasts toward the damaged area where they mature to striatal neurons. The molecular mechanisms regulating this plastic response, probably involved in structural reorganization and functional recovery, are poorly understood. The adaptor protein LNK suppresses hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, but its presence and role in the brain are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that LNK is expressed in NSPCs in the adult mouse and human SVZ. Lnk(-/-) mice exhibited increased NSPC proliferation after stroke, but not in intact brain or following status epilepticus. Deletion of Lnk caused increased NSPC proliferation while overexpression decreased mitotic activity of these cells in vitro. We found that Lnk expression after stroke increased in SVZ through the transcription factors STAT1/3. LNK attenuated insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling by inhibition of AKT phosphorylation, resulting in reduced NSPC proliferation. Our findings identify LNK as a stroke-specific, endogenous negative regulator of NSPC proliferation, and suggest that LNK signaling is a novel mechanism influencing plastic responses in postischemic brain.
  • Ahlenius, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Neural stem and progenitor cells retain their potential for proliferation and differentiation into functional neurons despite lower number in aged brain.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. - : Society for Neuroscience. - 1529-2401. ; 29:14, s. 4408-4419
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ), which gives rise to new neurons in the olfactory bulb, continues throughout life but declines with increasing age. Little is known about how aging affects the intrinsic properties of the neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) in SVZ and the functional characteristics of their neuronal progeny. Here, we have compared the properties of NSCs isolated from embryonic lateral ganglionic eminence and adult and aged SVZ in mice using in vivo and in vitro systems, analyzed their gene expression profile, and studied their electrophysiological characteristics before and after differentiation into neurons. We show a loss of NSCs in SVZ from aged mice accompanied by reduced expression of genes for NSC markers, developmentally important transcription factors, and neurogenic factors. However, when isolated in vitro, the NSCs from SVZ of aged animals have capacity for proliferation and multilineage differentiation, including production of functional neurons, similar to that of NSCs in adult mice, albeit with lower efficacy. These properties are of major importance when considering therapeutic applications of neuronal replacement from endogenous NSCs in the injured, aged brain.
  • Alsiö, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced Sucrose and Cocaine Self-Administration and Cue-Induced Drug Seeking after Loss of VGLUT2 in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons in Mice
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience. - 0270-6474 .- 1529-2401. ; 31:35, s. 12593-12603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system contributes to several aspects of responses to rewarding substances and is implicated in conditions such as drug addiction and eating disorders. A subset of DA neurons has been shown to express the type 2 Vesicular glutamate transporter (Vglut2) and may therefore corelease glutamate. In the present study, we analyzed mice with a conditional deletion of Vglut2 in DA neurons (Vglut2(f/f;DAT-Cre)) to address the functional significance of the glutamate-DA cophenotype for responses to cocaine and food reinforcement. Biochemical parameters of striatal DA function were also examined by using DA receptor autoradiography, immediate-early gene quantitative in situ hybridization after cocaine challenge, and DA-selective in vivo chronoamperometry. Mice in which Vglut2 expression had been abrogated in DA neurons displayed enhanced operant self-administration of both high-sucrose food and intravenous cocaine. Furthermore, cocaine seeking maintained by drug-paired cues was increased by 76%, showing that reward-dependent plasticity is perturbed in these mice. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that adaptive changes occurred in both the ventral and dorsal striatum in the absence of VGLUT2: DA receptor binding was increased, and basal mRNA levels of the DA-induced early genes Nur77 and c-fos were elevated as after cocaine induction. Furthermore, in vivo challenge of the DA system by potassium-evoked depolarization revealed less DA release in both striatal areas. This study demonstrates that absence of VGLUT2 in DA neurons leads to perturbations of reward consumption as well as reward-associated memory, features of particular relevance for addictive-like behavior.
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