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Sökning: L773:1537 6591 > (2010-2014) > (2012)

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1.
  • Aurelius, E, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term valacyclovir suppressive treatment after herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 54:9, s. 1304-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a common cause of acute and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Our aim was to determine the impact of antiviral suppression on recurrence of meningitis and to delineate the full spectrum of neurological complications.One hundred and one patients with acute primary or recurrent HSV-2 meningitis were assigned to placebo (n = 51) or 0.5 g of valacyclovir twice daily (n = 50) for 1 year after initial treatment with 1 g of valacyclovir 3 times daily for 1 week in a prospective, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. The primary outcome was time until recurrence of meningitis. The patients were followed up for 2 years.The first year, no significant difference was found between the valacyclovir and placebo groups. The second year, without study drugs, the risk of recurrence of verified and probable HSV-2 meningitis was significantly higher among patients exposed to valacyclovir (hazard ratio, 3.29 [95% confidence interval, 10.06-10.21]). One-third of the patients experienced 1-4 meningitis episodes during the study period. A considerable morbidity rate, comprising symptoms from the central, peripheral, and autonomous nervous system, was found in both groups.Suppressive treatment with 0.5 g of valacyclovir twice daily was not shown to prohibit recurrent meningitis and cannot be recommended for this purpose after HSV meningitis in general. Protection against mucocutaneous lesions was observed, but the dosage was probably inappropriate for the prevention of HSV activation in the central nervous system. The higher frequency of meningitis, after cessation of active drug, could be interpreted as a rebound phenomenon.
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2.
  • Awah, NW, et al. (författare)
  • Iron deficiency and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 54:8, s. 1145-1147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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3.
  • Erra, Elina O, et al. (författare)
  • A single dose of vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (Ixiaro) effectively boosts immunity in travelers primed with mouse brain-derived JE vaccines
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 55:6, s. 825-834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:A significant part of the world population lives in areas with endemic Japanese encephalitis (JE). For travelers from nonendemic countries, Vero cell-derived vaccine (JE-VC; Ixiaro) has replaced traditional mouse brain-derived vaccines (JE-MB) associated with safety concerns. The 2 vaccines are derived from different viral strains: JE-VC from the SA14-14-2 strain and JE-MB from the Nakayama strain. No data exist regarding whether JE-VC can be used to boost immunity after a primary series of JE-MB; therefore, a primary series of JE-VC has been recommended to all travelers regardless of previous vaccination history.METHODS:One hundred twenty travelers were divided into 4 groups: Volunteers with no prior JE vaccination received primary immunization with (group 1) JE-MB or (group 2) JE-VC, and those primed with JE-MB received a single booster dose of (group 3) JE-MB or (group 4) JE-VC. Immune responses were tested before and 4-8 weeks after vaccination using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) against both vaccine strains.RESULTS:In vaccine-naive travelers, the vaccination response rate for test strains Nakayama and SA14-14-2 was 100% and 87% after primary vaccination with JE-MB and 87% and 94% after JE-VC, respectively. Antibody levels depended on the target virus, with higher titers against homologous than heterologous PRNT(50) target strain (P < .001). In travelers primed with JE-MB, vaccination response rates were 91% and 91%, and 98% and 95% after a booster dose of JE-MB or JE-VC, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that a higher proportion of primed (98%/95%) than nonprimed (39%/42%) volunteers responded to a single dose of JE-VC (P < .001).CONCLUSIONS:A single dose of JE-VC effectively boosted immunity in JE-MB-primed travelers. Current recommendations should be reevaluated.CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:NCT01386827.
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5.
  • Panchalingam, Sandra, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Microbiologic Methods in the GEMS-1 Case/Control Study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 55 Suppl 4, s. S294-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites. Each site employed an identical case/control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. The selected assays effected a balanced consideration of cost, robustness and performance, and all assays were performed at the study sites. Identification of bacterial pathogens employed streamlined conventional bacteriologic biochemical and serological algorithms. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were identified by application of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for enterotoxigenic, enteroaggregative, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Rotavirus, adenovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia enterica, and Cryptosporidium species were detected by commercially available enzyme immunoassays on stool samples. Samples positive for adenovirus were further evaluated for adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41. We developed a novel multiplex assay to detect norovirus (types 1 and 2), astrovirus, and sapovirus. The portfolio of diagnostic assays used in the GEMS study can be broadly applied in developing countries seeking robust cost-effective methods for enteric pathogen detection.
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