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Sökning: L773:1537 6591 > (2020-2022)

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  • Alsved, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • SARS-CoV-2 in exhaled aerosol particles from covid-19 cases and its association to household transmission
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591. ; 75:1, s. 50-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Covid-19 transmission via exhaled aerosol particles has been considered an important route for the spread of infection, especially during super-spreading events involving loud talking or singing. However, no study has previously linked measurements of viral aerosol emissions to transmission rates.METHODS: During Feb-Mar 2021, covid-19 cases that were close to symptom onset were visited with a mobile laboratory for collection of exhaled aerosol particles during breathing, talking and singing, respectively, and of nasopharyngeal and saliva samples. Aerosol samples were collected using a BioSpot-VIVAS and a NIOSH bc-251 two-stage cyclone, and all samples were analyzed by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. We compared transmission rates between households with aerosol-positive and aerosol-negative index cases.RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in at least one aerosol sample from 19 of 38 (50%) included cases. The odds ratio of finding positive aerosol samples decreased with each day from symptom onset (OR 0.55, 95CI 0.30-1.0, p=0.049). The highest number of positive aerosol samples were from singing, 16 (42%), followed by talking, 11 (30%), and the least from breathing, 3 (8%). Index cases were identified for 13 households with 31 exposed contacts. Higher transmission rates were observed in households with aerosol-positive index cases, 10/16 infected (63%), compared to households with aerosol-negative index cases, 4/15 infected (27%) (Chi-square test, p=0.045).CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 cases were more likely to exhale SARS-CoV-2-containing aerosol particles close to symptom onset and during singing or talking as compared to breathing. This study supports that individuals with SARS-CoV-2 in exhaled aerosols are more likely to transmit covid-19.
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  • Alsved, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Sources of Airborne Norovirus in Hospital Outbreaks
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591. ; 70:10, s. 2023-2028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the major cause of viral gastroenteritis. Disease transmission is difficult to prevent and outbreaks in healthcare facilities commonly occur. Contact with infected persons and contaminated environments are believed to be the main routes of transmission. However, noroviruses have recently been found in aerosols and airborne transmission has been suggested. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between symptoms of gastroenteritis and presence of airborne norovirus, and to investigate the size of norovirus carrying particles.METHODS: Air sampling was repeatedly performed close to 26 patients with norovirus infections. Samples were analysed for norovirus RNA by RT-qPCR. The times since the patients' last episodes of vomiting and diarrhoea were recorded. Size separating aerosol particle collection was also performed in ward corridors.RESULTS: Norovirus RNA was found in 21 (24%) of 86 air samples from 10 different patients. Only air samples during outbreaks, or before a succeeding outbreak, tested positive for norovirus RNA. Airborne norovirus RNA was also strongly associated with a shorter time period since the last vomiting episode (odds ratio 8.1, p=0.04 within 3 hours since the last vomiting episode). The concentration of airborne norovirus ranged from 5-215 copies/m3, and detectable amounts of norovirus RNA were found in particles <0.95 µm and >4.51 µm.CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that recent vomiting is the major source of airborne norovirus and imply a connection between airborne norovirus and outbreaks. The presence of norovirus RNA in submicrometre particles indicates that airborne transmission can be an important transmission route.
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  • Boutry, Céline, et al. (författare)
  • The Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine Confers Long-Term Protection Against Herpes Zoster : Interim Results of an Extension Study of the Pivotal Phase 3 Clinical Trials ZOE-50 and ZOE-70
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 74:8, s. 1459-1467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Efficacy against herpes zoster and immune responses to the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine plateaued at high levels between 5.1 and 7.1 years (mean) post-vaccination, suggesting that its clinical benefit in older adults is sustained for at least 7 years post-vaccination. Background This ongoing follow-up study evaluated the persistence of efficacy and immune responses for 6 additional years in adults vaccinated with the glycoprotein E (gE)-based adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) at age >= 50 years in 2 pivotal efficacy trials (ZOE-50 and ZOE-70). The present interim analysis was performed after >= 2 additional years of follow-up (between 5.1 and 7.1 years [mean] post-vaccination) and includes partial data for year (Y) 8 post-vaccination. Methods Annual assessments were performed for efficacy against herpes zoster (HZ) from Y6 post-vaccination and for anti-gE antibody concentrations and gE-specific CD4[2+] T-cell (expressing >= 2 of 4 assessed activation markers) frequencies from Y5 post-vaccination. Results Of 7413 participants enrolled for the long-term efficacy assessment, 7277 (mean age at vaccination, 67.2 years), 813, and 108 were included in the cohorts evaluating efficacy, humoral immune responses, and cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. Efficacy of RZV against HZ through this interim analysis was 84.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75.9-89.8) from the start of this follow-up study and 90.9% (95% CI, 88.2-93.2) from vaccination in ZOE-50/70. Annual vaccine efficacy estimates were >84% for each year since vaccination and remained stable through this interim analysis. Anti-gE antibody geometric mean concentrations and median frequencies of gE-specific CD4[2+] T cells reached a plateau at approximately 6-fold above pre-vaccination levels. Conclusions Efficacy against HZ and immune responses to RZV remained high, suggesting that the clinical benefit of RZV in older adults is sustained for at least 7 years post-vaccination.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 75
  • [1]234567...8Nästa

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