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Sökning: L773:1537 6591 > (2020-2022)

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  • Föregående 1234[5]6Nästa
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  • Rasmussen, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • One Scoring System Does Not Fit All Healthcare Settings
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591. ; 74:1, s. 166-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Sansone, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • Extensive Hospital In-Ward Clustering Revealed By Molecular Characterization of Influenza A Virus Infection.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:9, s. e377-e383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nosocomial transmission of influenza A virus (InfA) infection is not fully recognized. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of hospitalized patients with InfA infections during an entire season and to investigate in-ward transmission at a large, acute-care hospital.During the 2016-17 season, all hospitalized patients ≥18 years old with laboratory-verified (real-time polymerase chain reaction) InfA were identified. Cases were characterized according to age; sex; comorbidity; antiviral therapy; viral load, expressed as cycle threshold values; length of hospital stay; 30-day mortality; and whether the InfA infection met criteria for a health care-associated influenza A infection (HCAI). Respiratory samples positive for InfA that were collected at the same wards within 7 days were chosen for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and a phylogenetic analysis was performed to detect clustering. For reference, concurrent InfA strains from patients with community-acquired infection were included.We identified a total of 435 InfA cases, of which 114 (26%) met the HCAI criteria. The overall 30-day mortality rate was higher among patients with HCAI (9.6% vs 4.6% among non-HCAI patients), although the difference was not statistically significant in a multivariable analysis, where age was the only independent risk factor for death (P < .05). We identified 8 closely related clusters (involving ≥3 cases) and another 10 pairs of strains, supporting in-ward transmission.We found that the in-ward transmission of InfA occurs frequently and that HCAI may have severe outcomes. WGS may be used for outbreak investigations, as well as for evaluations of the effects of preventive measures.
  • Satlin, MJ, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Position Statements on Polymyxin B and Colistin Clinical Breakpoints
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 71:9, s. E523-E529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent data on polymyxin pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, toxicity, and clinical outcomes suggest these agents have limited clinical utility. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics data show a steady-state concentration of 2 μg/mL is required for killing bacteria with colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2 μg/mL. Less than 50% of patients with normal renal function achieve this exposure, and it is associated with high risk of nephrotoxicity. This exposure does not achieve bacterial stasis in pneumonia models. Randomized and observational studies consistently demonstrate increased mortality for polymyxins compared with alternative agents. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) are 2 global organizations that establish interpretive criteria for in vitro susceptibility data. CLSI has recently taken the step to eliminate the “susceptible” interpretive category for the polymyxins, whereas EUCAST maintains this interpretive category. This viewpoint describes the opinions of these organizations and the data that were used to inform their perspectives.
  • Snygg-Martin, Ulrika, 1965, et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Incidence of Infective Endocarditis in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease: A Nationwide, Case-Control Study Over Nine Decades
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 73:8, s. 1469-1475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a lifelong predisposing condition for infective endocarditis (IE). As a consequence of advances in pediatric care, the number of adults with CHD is now exceeding the number of children. The goal of the present study was to determine the cumulative incidence of IE in patients with CHD and detect temporal changes compared with controls. METHODS: Nationwide registry-based case-control study of patients with CHD born 1930-2017 matched with 10 random controls. Infective endocarditis episodes were linked using the Swedish 10-digit personal identification number. RESULTS: In total, 89 541 patients with CHD and 890 470 matched controls were included. In patients with CHD, 1477 IE episodes were registered and 447 episodes in controls. Patients with CHD had 8.5% cumulative incidence of IE at age 87 years, compared with 0.7% in matched controls. Incidence rate of IE per 100 000 person-years was 65.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62.2-68.9) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.7-2.0) in CHD patients and controls, respectively. By age 18 years, patients with CHD had an IE incidence similar to that of 81-year-old controls. Incidence of IE differed by age but not by birth year. Bacterial etiology was registered from 1997 in half of the IE episodes; among CHD IE cases, 43.3% were caused by streptococci and 29.8% by Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Infective endocarditis remains an important complication in patients with CHD. Incidence correlate with age and the number of IE episodes are expected to increase as the CHD population grow older.
  • Stoner, Marie C.D., et al. (författare)
  • Modeling Combination Interventions to Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in South Africa (HIV Prevention Trials Network 068)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:7, s. e1911-e1918
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Combination interventions may be an effective way to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adolescent girls and young women. However, current studies are not designed to understand which specific interventions and combinations will be most effective. We estimate the possible impacts of interventions on a combination of factors associated with HIV.METHODS: We used the g-formula to model interventions on combinations of HIV risk factors to identify those that would prevent the most incident HIV infections, including low school attendance, intimate partner violence, depression, transactional sex, and age-disparate partnerships. We used data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 study in rural South Africa from 2011 to 2017. We estimated HIV incidence under a potential intervention that reduced each risk factor and compared this to HIV incidence under the current distribution of these risk factors.RESULTS: Although many factors had strong associations with HIV, potential intervention estimates did not always suggest large reductions in HIV incidence because the prevalence of risk factors was low. When modeling combination effects, an intervention to increase schooling, decrease depression, and decease transactional sex showed the largest reduction in incident infection (risk difference, -1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.7% to -.2%), but an intervention on only transactional sex and depression still reduced HIV incidence by -1.3% (95% CI, -2.6% to -.2%).CONCLUSIONS: To achieve the largest reductions in HIV, both prevalence of the risk factor and strength of association with HIV must be considered. Additionally, intervening on more risk factors may not necessarily result in larger reductions in HIV incidence.
  • Susanto, Budi Octasari, et al. (författare)
  • Rifampicin can be given as flat-dosing instead of weight-band dosing
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:12, s. 3055-3060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The weight-band dosing in tuberculosis treatment regimen has been implemented in clinical practice for decades. Patients will receive different number of fixed dose combination (FDC) tablets according to their weight-band. However, some analysis have shown that weight was not the best covariate to explain variability of rifampicin exposure. Furthermore, the rationale for using weight-band dosing instead of flat-dosing becomes questionable. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the average and the variability of rifampicin exposure after weight-band dosing and flat-dosing.METHODS: Rifampicin exposure were simulated using previously published population pharmacokinetics model at dose 10-40 mg/kg for weight-band dosing and dose 600-2400 mg for flat-dosing. The median AUC0-24h after day 7 and 14 were compared as well as the variability of each dose group between weight-band and flat-dosing.RESULTS: The difference of median AUC0-24h of all dose groups between flat-dosing and weight-band dosing were considered low (< 20%) except for the lowest dose. At the dose of 10 mg/kg (600 mg for flat-dosing), flat-dosing resulted in higher median AUC0-24h compared to the weight-band dosing. A marginal decrease in between-patient variability was predicted for weight-band dosing compared to flat-dosing.CONCLUSIONS: Weight-band dosing yields a small and non-clinically relevant decrease in variability of AUC0-24h.
  • Svensson, Elin M., 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Model-based meta-analysis of rifampicin exposure and mortality in Indonesian tuberculous meningitis trials
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:8, s. 1817-1823
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIntensified antimicrobial treatment with higher rifampicin doses may improve outcome of tuberculous meningitis, but the desirable exposure and necessary dose are unknown. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between rifampicin exposures and mortality in order to identify optimal dosing for tuberculous meningitis.MethodsAn individual patient meta-analysis was performed on data from 3 Indonesian randomized controlled phase 2 trials comparing oral rifampicin 450 mg (~10 mg/kg) to intensified regimens including 750–1350 mg orally, or a 600-mg intravenous infusion. Pharmacokinetic data from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analyzed with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Six-month survival was described with parametric time-to-event models.ResultsPharmacokinetic analyses included 133 individuals (1150 concentration measurements, 170 from CSF). The final model featured 2 disposition compartments, saturable clearance, and autoinduction. Rifampicin CSF concentrations were described by a partition coefficient (5.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5%–6.4%) and half-life for distribution plasma to CSF (2.1 hours; 95% CI, 1.3–2.9 hours). Higher CSF protein concentration increased the partition coefficient. Survival of 148 individuals (58 died, 15 dropouts) was well described by an exponentially declining hazard, with lower age, higher baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, and higher individual rifampicin plasma exposure reducing the hazard. Simulations predicted an increase in 6-month survival from approximately 50% to approximately 70% upon increasing the oral rifampicin dose from 10 to 30 mg/kg, and predicted that even higher doses would further improve survival.ConclusionsHigher rifampicin exposure substantially decreased the risk of death, and the maximal effect was not reached within the studied range. We suggest a rifampicin dose of at least 30 mg/kg to be investigated in phase 3 clinical trials.
  • Thuresson, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Airborne Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Hospitals : Effects of Aerosol-Generating Procedures, HEPA-Filtration Units, Patient Viral Load, and Physical Distance
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591. ; 75:1, s. 89-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can occur through inhalation of fine droplets or aerosols containing infectious virus. The objective of this study was to identify situations, patient characteristics, environmental parameters, and aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) associated with airborne severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus.METHODS: Air samples were collected near hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyzed by RT-qPCR. Results were related to distance to the patient, most recent patient diagnostic PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value, room ventilation, and ongoing potential AGPs.RESULTS: In total, 310 air samples were collected; of these, 26 (8%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 231 samples from patient rooms, 22 (10%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Positive air samples were associated with a low patient Ct value (OR, 5.0 for Ct <25 vs >25; P = .01; 95% CI: 1.18-29.5) and a shorter physical distance to the patient (OR, 2.0 for every meter closer to the patient; P = .05; 95% CI: 1.0-3.8). A mobile HEPA-filtration unit in the room decreased the proportion of positive samples (OR, .3; P = .02; 95% CI: .12-.98). No association was observed between SARS-CoV-2-positive air samples and mechanical ventilation, high-flow nasal cannula, nebulizer treatment, or noninvasive ventilation. An association was found with positive expiratory pressure training (P < .01) and a trend towards an association for airway manipulation, including bronchoscopies and in- and extubations.CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that major risk factors for airborne SARS-CoV-2 include short physical distance, high patient viral load, and poor room ventilation. AGPs, as traditionally defined, seem to be of secondary importance.
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