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1.
  • Barkarmo, Sargon, et al. (författare)
  • Nano-hydroxyapatite-coated PEEK implants: A pilot study in rabbit bone.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1552-4965 .- 1549-3296. ; 101:2, s. 465-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osseointegration of surface-modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants was studied in vivo. A total of 18 cylinder-shaped PEEK implants were inserted in the femurs of nine New Zealand rabbits; half were coated with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nanoHA) and half were uncoated controls. Healing time was 6 weeks. Samples were retrieved with the implant and surrounding tissue, processed to cut and ground sections, and analyzed histomorphometrically. The implant surfaces were analyzed with optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). NanoHA-coated PEEK surfaces had lower height deviation (Sa) than controls [mean ± SD: 0.41 μm (±0.14) vs. 0.96 μm (±0.28)]. SEM images showed the nanoHA crystals as a thin layer on the polymer surface. XPS analysis of the coated implants showed a Ca/P ratio of 1.67. Histomorphometry indicated that the nanoHA-coated implants had more bone-to-implant contact [16% (±4.7) vs. 13% (±9.3)] and more bone area [52% (±9.5) vs. 45% (±11.9)]. We found no difference between smooth nanoHA-coated cylinder-shaped PEEK implants and uncoated controls. However, higher mean bone-to-implant contact indicated better osseointegration in the coated implants than in the uncoated controls. The large number of lost implants was interpreted as a lack of primary stability due to implant design. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012.
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2.
  • Bexborn, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Hirudin versus heparin for use in whole blood in vitro biocompatibility models
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. - Hoboken, NJ, US : John Wiley & Sons Inc. - 1549-3296 .- 1552-4965. ; 89A:4, s. 951-959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Heparin has traditionally been a widely used anticoagulant in blood research, but has been shown to be inappropriate for work with the complement system because of its complement-interacting properties. In this work, we have compared the effects of heparin with those of the specific thrombin inhibitor hirudin on complement and blood cells in vitro. Methods: Whole blood collected in the presence of hirudin (50 µg/mL) or heparin (1 IU/mL) was incubated in the slide chamber model. The plasma was analyzed for complement activation markers C3a and sC5b-9, and the polyvinylchloride test slides were stained for adhering cells. The integrity of the complement system was tested by incubating serum and hirudin-treated plasma in the presence of various activating agents.Results: In contrast to heparin, the addition of hirudin generally preserved the complement reactivity, and complement activation in hirudin plasma closely resembled that in normal serum. Importantly, immunochemical staining of surface-bound cells demonstrated the inducible expression of tissue factor on bound monocytes from hirudin-treated blood, an effect that was completely abolished in heparin-treated blood.Conclusion: Our results indicate that hirudin as an anticoagulant produces more physiological conditions than heparin, making hirudin well-suited for in vitro studies, especially those addressing the regulation of cellular processes.
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3.
  • Cairns, Marie-Louise, et al. (författare)
  • The potential of electron beam radiation for simultaneous surface modification and bioresorption control of PLLA.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. - 1549-3296 .- 1552-4965. ; 100:9, s. 2223-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bioresorbable polymers have been widely investigated as materials exhibiting significant potential for successful application in the fields of tissue engineering and drug delivery. Further to the ability to control degradation, surface engineering of polymers has been highlighted as a key method central to their development. Previous work has demonstrated the ability of electron beam (e-beam) technology to control the degradation profiles and bioresorption of a number of commercially relevant bioresorbable polymers (poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), L-lactide/DL-lactide co-polymer (PLDL) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)). This work investigates the further potential of e-beam technology to impart added biofunctionality through the manipulation of polymer (PLLA) surface properties. PLLA samples were subjected to e-beam treatments in air, with varying beam energies and doses. Surface characterization was then performed using contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Results demonstrated a significant increase in surface wettability post e-beam treatment. In correlation with this, XPS data showed the introduction of oxygen-containing functional groups to the surface of PLLA. Raman spectroscopy indicated chain scission in the near surface region of PLLA (as predicted). However, e-beam effects on surface properties were not shown to be dependent on beam energy or dose. E-beam irradiation did not seem to affect the surface roughness of PLLA as a direct consequence of the treatment.
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4.
  • Carville, N. Craig, et al. (författare)
  • Biocompatibility of ferroelectric lithium niobate and the influence of polarization charge on osteoblast proliferation and function
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1549-3296 .- 1552-4965. ; 103:8, s. 2540-2548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work, the influence of substrate surface charge on in vitro osteoblast cell proliferation on ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) crystal surfaces is investigated. LN has a spontaneous polarization along the z-axis and is thus characterized by positive and negative bound polarization charge at the +z and -z surfaces. Biocompatibility of LN was demonstrated via culturing and fluorescence imaging of MC3T3 osteoblast cells for up to 11 days. The cells showed enhanced proliferation rates and improved osteoblast function through mineral formation on the positively and negatively charged LN surfaces compared to electrostatically neutral x-cut LN and a glass cover slip control. These results highlight the potential of LN as a template for investigating the role of charge on cellular processes.
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5.
  • Cecchinato, F., et al. (författare)
  • In vitro evaluation of human fetal osteoblast response to magnesium loaded mesoporous TiO2 coating.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1552-4965 .- 1549-3296. ; 102:11, s. 3862-3871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro response of Transfected Human Foetal Osteoblast (hFOB) cultured on a magnesium-loaded mesoporous TiO2 coating. The application of mesoporous films on titanium implant surfaces has shown very promising potential to enhance osseointegration. This type of coating has the ability to act as a framework to sustain bioactive agents and different drugs. Magnesium is the element that, after calcium, is the most frequently used to dope titanium implant surfaces, since it is crucial for protein formation, growth factor expression, and aids for bone mineral deposition on implant surfaces. Mesoporous TiO2 films with an average pore-size of 6 nm were produced by the evaporation-induced self-assembly method (EISA) and deposited onto titanium discs. Magnesium loading was performed by soaking the mesoporous TiO2 discs in a magnesium chloride solution. Surface characterization was conducted by SEM, XPS, optical interferometry, and AFM. Magnesium release profile was assessed at different time points using a Magnesium Detection kit. Cell morphology and spreading were observed with SEM. The cytoskeletal organization was stained with TRITC-conjugated Phalloidin and cell viability was evaluated through a mitochondrial colorimetric (MTT) assay. Furthermore, gene expression of bone markers and cell mineralization were analyzed by real time RT-PCR and alizarin-red staining, respectively. The surface chemical analysis by XPS revealed the successful adsorption of magnesium to the mesoporous coating. The AFM measurements revealed the presence of a nanostructured surface roughness. Osteoblasts viability and adhesion as well as the gene expression were unaffected by the addition of magnesium possibly due to its rapid burst release, however, were enhanced by the 3D nanostructure of the TiO2 layer.
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6.
  • Esguerra, Maricris, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Intravital fluorescent microscopic evaluation of bacterial cellulose as scaffold for vascular grafts.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A. - 1552-4965 .- 1549-3296. ; 93:1, s. 140-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although commonly used synthetic vascular grafts perform satisfactorily in large caliber blood vessels, they are prone to thrombosis in small diameter vessels. Therefore, small vessels might benefit from tissue engineered vascular grafts. This study evaluated bacterial cellulose (BC) as a potential biomaterial for biosynthetic blood vessels. We implanted the dorsal skinfold chambers in three groups of Syrian golden hamsters with BC (experimental group), polyglycolic acid, or expanded polytetrafluorethylene (control groups). Following implantation, we used intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry to analyze the biocompatibility, neovascularization, and incorporation of each material over a time period of 2 weeks. Biocompatibility was good in all groups, as indicated by the absence of leukocyte activation upon implantation. All groups displayed angiogenic response in the host tissue, but that response was highest in the polyglycolic acid group. Histology revealed vascularized granulation tissue surrounding all three biomaterials, with many proliferating cells and a lack of apoptotic cell death 2 weeks after implantation. In conclusion, BC offers good biocompatibility and material incorporation compared with commonly used materials in vascular surgery. Thus, BC represents a promising new biomaterial for tissue engineering of vascular grafts.
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7.
  • Ferraz, Natalia, et al. (författare)
  • In vitro and in vivo toxicity of rinsed and aged nanocellulose-polypyrrole composites
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. - 1549-3296 .- 1552-4965. ; 100A:8, s. 2128-2138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Novel composites of nanocellulose and the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) are herein suggested as potential candidates for active ion-extraction membranes in electrochemically controlled hemodialysis. This work has defined processing parameters to obtain a biocompatible nanocellulose-PPy composite and for the first time, the effect of the composite ageing on cell viability has been studied.The influence of rinsing and extraction process steps, as well as ageing under different conditions (i.e. in air, at –20 ˚C and in argon), on the electroactivity and cytotoxicity of a PPy-nanocellulose composite has been investigated. The biocompatibility evaluation was based on indirect toxicity assays with fibroblasts and monocyte cell lines and an acute toxicity test in mice, while the electroactivity was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry experiments.The as-prepared composite did not induce any cytotoxic response in vitro or in vivo. Extensive rinsing and 48 hour incubation in biological buffer previous to the preparation of the culture medium extracts were, however, necessary to obtain a non-cytotoxic composite. The as-prepared composite was also found to exhibit acceptable electrochemical performance, which was retained upon 4 weeks storage in argon atmosphere.  It was shown that ageing of the composite had a negative effect on biocompatibility, regardless of the storage condition. Thus, to allow for long time storage of electroactive nanocellulose-PPy hemodialysis membranes, the degradation of PPy upon storage must be controlled. The present results show that the biocompatibility of PPy composites depends on the rinsing and pre-treatment of the composite material as well as the aging of the material.
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8.
  • Fink, Helen, et al. (författare)
  • An in vitro study of blood compatibility of vascular grafts made of bacterial cellulose in comparison with conventionally-used graft materials
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A. - 1549-3296. ; 97:1, s. 52-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we analyzed the blood compatibility of bacterial cellulose (BC) as a new biosynthetic material for use as a vascular graft. As reference materials we used expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) vascular grafts. These materials are in clinical use today. Tubes with inner diameters of both 4 (not PET) and 6 mm were tested. Heparin-coated PVC tubes (hepPVC) were used as a negative control. Platelet consumption and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were used as parameters of coagulation and for complement activation, sC3a and sC5b-9 were used. The investigated parameters were measured after 1-h exposure to freshly drawn human blood supplemented with a low dose of heparin in a Chandler loop system. The results showed that BC exhibits no significant difference in platelet consumption, as compared with PET 16 mm), ePTFE and hepPVC. The PET material consumed more platelets than any of the other materials. The TAT generation for 4 mm tubes was not significantly different between BC and the other materials. For 6 mm tubes, however, differences were observed between hepPVC and PET (p < 0.0001); BC and hepPVC (p = 0.0016); ePTFE and PET (p < 0.0001); BC and ePTFE (p = 0.0029); BC and PET (p = 0.0141). Surprisingly, considering the low platelet consumption, the complement activation parameters (sC3a and sC5b-9) were much higher for BC, as compared with the other materials for both 4 and 6 mm tubes.
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9.
  • Ghane, Nazanin, et al. (författare)
  • Regeneration of the peripheral nerve via multifunctional electrospun scaffolds
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1549-3296 .- 1552-4965. ; 109:4, s. 437-452
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the last two decades, electrospun scaffolds have proved to be advantageous in the field of nerve tissue regeneration by connecting the cavity among the proximal and distal nerve stumps growth cones and leading to functional recovery after injury. Multifunctional nanofibrous structure of these scaffolds provides enormous potential by combining the advantages of nano‐scale topography, and biological science. In these structures, selecting the appropriate materials, designing an optimized structure, modifying the surface to enhance biological functions and neurotrophic factors loading, and native cell‐like stem cells should be considered as the essential factors. In this systematic review paper, the fabrication methods for the preparation of aligned nanofibrous scaffolds in yarn or conduit architecture are reviewed. Subsequently, the utilized polymeric materials, including natural, synthetic and blend are presented. Finally, their surface modification techniques, as well as, the recent advances and outcomes of the scaffolds, both in vitro and in vivo, are reviewed and discussed.
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10.
  • Göransson, Anna, 1970, et al. (författare)
  • An in vitro comparison of possibly bioactive titanium implant surfaces.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. - 1552-4965 .- 1549-3296. ; 88:4, s. 1037-1047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to compare Ca and P formation (CaP) and subsequent bone cell response of a blasted and four different possibly bioactive commercially pure (cp) titanium surfaces; 1. Fluoride etched (Fluoride), 2. Alkali-heat treated (AH), 3. Magnesium ion incorporated anodized (TiMgO), and 4. Nano HA coated and heat treated (nano HA) in vitro. Furthermore, to evaluate the significance of the SBF formed CaP coat on bone cell response. The surfaces were characterized by Optical Interferometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). CaP formation was evaluated after 12, 24 and 72 h in simulated body fluid (SBF). Primary human mandibular osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the various surfaces subjected to SBF for 72 h. Cellular attachment, differentiation (osteocalcin) and protein production (TGF-beta(1)) was evaluated after 3 h and 10 days respectively. Despite different morphological appearances, the roughness of the differently modified surfaces was similar. The possibly bioactive surfaces gave rise to an earlier CaP formation than the blasted surface, however, after 72 h the blasted surface demonstrated increased CaP formation compared to the possibly bioactive surfaces. Subsequent bone cell attachment was correlated to neither surface roughness nor the amount of formed CaP after SBF treatment. In contrast, osteocalcin and TGF-beta(1) production were largely correlated to the amount of CaP formed on the surfaces. However, bone response (cell attachment, osteocalcin and TGF-F production) on the blasted controls were similar or increased compared to the SBF treated fluoridated, AH and TiMgO surface. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2008.
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